Appendix : State and Local Hate Crime Laws, 1979-2000

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Year        Jurisdiction                           Areas Covered                     Groups                                   Status

                                                                                                                Covered

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

1979        Massachusetts                     1-5                                           6-7                                           In force

                                                                                                                (7 was added in 1996 by HB 5191

                                                                                                                and SB 165; NGLTF 1997; signed by

                                                                                                                Governor 7/22/96; also adds persons

                                                                                                                with HIV/AIDS (LGLAGNY 1996h))

 

1981        Oregon                                   1-5                                           6-7                                           In force

                                                                                                                (7 was added in 1989 by HB 2784;

                                                                                                                Berrill 1992)

 

1983        Minnesota                             1, 3-5                                       6-9                                           In force

                                                                (expanded to allow               (7 was added to statistics collection in 1988;

                                                                civil suits in 1996 by            and 7 was added to criminal penalties in

                                                                HF 1648 & SB 2186;             1989; also SB 606, passed in 1989, required

                                                                includes s/o                          statistics collection and police training;

                                                                (NGLTF 1997)                       Berrill 1992)

 

1984        California                               1-4                                           6-9                                           In force; part of

                                                                (strengthened law with AB 63 in 1987;                             civil code 61.7

                                                                SB 911 in 1995 by allowing courts to

                                                                order offenders in a counseling program)

 

84            Seattle, WA                          1, 3                                          6-7                                           In force

 

1986        Illinois                                    1-5                                           6-9                                           In force

                                                                                                                (7 & 9 were added in 1990 by SB 2267;

                                                                                                                Berrill 1992)

 

1987        Connecticut                          1-4                                           6-9                                           In force

 

87            Maine (LD 1987)                   1, 3-4                                       6-7                                           In force

                                                                (expanded in 1991 to include data collection (Berrill 1992); sentencing

                                                                classes were enhanced in 1995 under HB 592)

 

87            New York                               1-3                                           6, 8-9                                       In force

                                                                (may have been 1986)

 

1988        Colorado                                1-3                                           6                                              In force

 

88            Columbus, OH                      1, 3                                          6-7                                           In force

 

88            Michigan                               1-3                                           6, 8                                          In force

                                                                (Miner and Bauza 7/1/97; expanded in 1991)

 

88            Oklahoma                              1-4                                           6, 9                                          In force

 

88            Oklahoma City, OK              1, 3                                          6-9                                           In force

 

88            Wisconsin                             1-3                                           6-7, 9                                       In force

                                                                (Wisc 1987 Act 348)

 

1989        Atlanta, GA                           4                                              6-7                                           In force

 

89            Burlington, IA                      1,3                                           6-9                                           In force

 

89            Florida                                    1-4                                           6-7                                           In force

                                                                                                                (7 added in 1991 by SB 1482; Berrill

                                                                                                                1992)

 

89            Montgomery County,         1-2                                           6-9                                           In force

                MD                                         (Berrill 1992)

 

89            Nevada                                  1, 3, 4                                      6-7                                           In force

                                                                (4 added in 1995 by AB 606; law also expanded to have bias

                                                                considered for circumstances under which a death penalty may be

                                                                imposed for murder; signed by Governor 5/23/95; effective 10/1/95;

                                                                LGLAGNY 1995f)

 

89            New Jersey                            1-4                                           6-9                                           In force

                                                                                                                (7 added in 1990; Berrill 1992; in 1996

                                                                                                                penalties increased for simple assault

                                                                                                                hate crimes; includes s/o; NGLTF

                                                                                                                1996b)

 

89            St. Louis, MO                       1-4                                           6-9                                           In force

 

89            Washington                          1-3                                           6-9                                           In force

                                                                                                                (7 added in 1993)

 

1990        Chicago, IL                            1, 3-4                                       6-9                                           In force

 

90            Iowa                                       1-5                                           6-9                                           In force

                                                                (amended in 1990 to state that the law does not establish any new

                                                                rights; Berrill 1992)

 

90            New Hampshire                    1, 3                                          6-8                                           In force

                                                                (HB 1299; sponsored by Trombly on 1/3/90; on 2/21amended on

                                                                House floor, then passed HOUSE; passed Senate on 3/22; Governor

                                                                signed 4/6 (Lexis-Nexis 1997))

 

90            Pennsylvania                        1-4                                           6                                              In force

 

90            Vermont                                 1-3                                           6-9                                           In force

 

90            Washington, DC                  1-5                                           6-9                                           In force

 

90            Wichita, KS                           1, 3                                          6-7                                           In force

 

1991        Arizona                                  1-4                                           6-9                                           In force

                                                                                                                (added 7-9 in 1995; SB 1143; added

                                                                1-3 in 1997; HB 2182 into SB 1047; Sponsor: Rep. sexual orientation

                                                                Robin Shaw (R-26-Phoenix); Rep. Shaw filed a discharge petition on

                                                                4/3/97;

                                                                a rarely used procedure that will send Senate Bill 1047 straight to the

                                                                House floor (McKinnon 4/5/97); on 4/10/97 the House passed SB 1047

                                                                by 36-20-4 after an attempt was made to compromise on how groups

                                                                were named in the bill (McKinnon 4/11/97); the compromise was the

                                                                Governor’s version and failed 29-18; that wording allowed stiffer

                                                                punishments if the crime was committed because the victim was the

                                                                member of some identifiable group; final passed House 39-20-1 on

                                                                4/21/97; passed Senate final 19-9-2 on 4/21/97 (web page); signed

                                                                by Governor on 4/28/97 (Ofstedahl 4/29/97); separate bill?

                                                                allows victims to take civil action (Jones 5/16/97; 8/1/97)

 

91            El Cerrito, CA                        4                                              6-7                                           In force

 

91            Louisville, KY                       1, 3-4                                       6-7                                           In force

 

91            Maryland                               1, 3-4                                       6                                              In force

                                                                (this was amendment that added statistics collection, including

                                                                s/o to original hate crimes law; Berrill 1992)

 

91            Rhode Island                        1-4                                           6                                              In force

 

91            Texas                                      1, 3-4                                       *                                              In force

 

1992        Tacoma, WA                        1                                              7                                              In force

                                                                classifies assaults as hate crimes if a court finds the act was

                                                                motivated by sexual orientation (Hucks 5/14/97)

 

92            Utah                                       1-2                                           6-7                                           In force

 

1993        Alaska                                    1, 3                                          6                                              In force

 

1994        Virginia                                  1-4                                           6                                              In force

 

1995        Alabama                                                1, 3                                          6                                              In force

 

95            Arkansas                               2                                              6                                              In force

 

95            Delaware                                1, 3                                          6-7                                           In force

                                                                (penalties enhanced in 1997; s/o added; SB 53; introduced Jan. 31

                                                                by Sen. Margaret Rose Henry (Delaware...3/21/97); passed both

                                                                chambers on 6/25/97; House by 38-0 and Senate by 16-3; (Taylor

                                                                7/4/97)); Governor signed on 7/12/97 (“Hate Crime...” 7/14/97)

 

95            Tumwater, WA                     1, 3                                          6,7                                           Effective 1996

                                                                 (Hucks 3/19/97)                                                                   (Hucks 5/14/97)

 

1997        Albuquerque, NM               1                                              6-9                                           In force

                                                                (passed council 12/16/96 by 7-2); signed by mayor 1/97

                                                                LGLAGNY 1997a)

 

97            Louisiana                               1-3, 5                                       6-7                                           In force

                                                                (earlier law covered 2 and 6; the 1997 law was signed by the Governor

                                                                in 7/97 (Jones 8/1/97); the bill was SB 914; Sponsor Sen. James Cox

                                                                (D-Lake Charles) (LEGAL online); SB 914 passed the Senate on 5/21

                                                                by 23-13-3; in an attempt to diffuse some of the opposition to, Sen. Cox

                                                                added to the protected status list, persons who are members, whether

                                                                perceived or not, in certain organized groups or organizations, such as

                                                                the military or the Christian Coalition; Sen. Phil Short (R-Covington)

                                                                proposed an amendment to the bill to delete sexual orientation; Sen.

                                                                John Guidry (D-Baton Rouge) made a motion to table Short's

                                                                amendment (kill it), which passed by a vote of 21-11; he followed that

                                                                motion by requesting that the discussion of the bill end immediately;

                                                                motion passed 21-12 (LEGAL 5/22/97) (have roll call); passed the

                                                                House Administration of Criminal Justice Committee on 6/6/97 by a

                                                                vote of 6-2 after surviving a hostile amendment to remove sexual

                                                                orientation from the bill; the amendment failed 5-3 (LEGAL 6/6/97);

                                                                passed House on 6/17/97 by 61-37; an amendent to remove s/o failed

                                                                46-49; the bill now returned again to the Senate for confirmation of

                                                                technical amendments that were added to it in the House committee

                                                                (LEGAL 6/17/97)

 

97            Nebraska                               1-3                                           6-9                                           In force

                                                                Hate Crimes; including        LB 90; Passed committee week of 4/7

                                                                sexual orientation;               (NGLTF 4/16/97); passed legislature by 35

                                                                increases penalties and       to 9 on 6/5/97; signed by Governor on

                                                                establish civil actions          6/12/97 (Taylor 7/4/97)

                                                                against individuals found

                                                                guilty of committing

                                                                crimes against a person or person's property because of race, color,

                                                                religion, ancestry, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, age, or

                                                                disability (Taylor 7/4/97)

 

97            Virginia                                  Establishes panel to study hate        HJR 561; Delegate C. Richard

                                                                crimes in the state; s/o was                                Cranwell (D- Craig County) made

                                                                included when HB 2639 (above)        a motion to insert s/o but no vote

                                                                was inserted, but pulled before         taken; w/o s/o HJR 561 passed

                                                                vote; the subcommittee charges it    the House on 2/4 (99-0) and the

                                                                with studying only those hate           Senate on 2/18 (39-0); because

                                                                crimes against ethnic, racial,              it was slightly amended in the

                                                                gender and religious groups,             Senate, it was sent back to the

                                                                entities and individuals; bill               House where it passed on 2/20

                                                                still applies to gays, however,           (100-0); didn’t need Gov.’s

                                                                and commission is studying anti-     signature (Jones 3/14/97)

                                                                gay hate crime (Jones 8/29/97)

 

97            Winona, MN                         Hate Crimes; formation       Received approval from the City

                                                                of a hate crimes task            Council 1/97 (Seidel 5/31/97)

                                                                force by the Winona

                                                                Human Rights Commission; the Task Force will provide support for

                                                                victims of hate crimes; victims will be referred to the group by the

                                                                Police Department

 

1998        Kentucky                               3, Hate Crime penalty          6, 7; Previous attempts had failed; HB 455;

                                                                enhancement                       

 

1999        Missouri                                3, Hate Crime penalty          6, 7; Previous attempts had failed; SB 328

                                                                enhancement 3                     added s/o to existing law;

 

Date of passage not known

 

                Idaho                                      1-4                                           6                                              In force

 

                Lacey, WA                            1 ?                                           6-8 ?                                        In force

                                                                (LGLAGNY 1997c)

 

                Mississippi                           1, 3                                          6, 8                                          In force

 

                Missouri                                1-3                                           6                                              In force

 

                Montana                                1, 3                                          6                                              In force

 

                New Mexico                          4                                              6                                              In force

 

                North Carolina                      1, 3                                          6                                              In force

 

                North Dakota                        1, 3                                          6, 8                                          In force

 

                Ohio                                       1-3                                           6                                              In force

 

                South Dakota                        1, 3                                          6                                              In force

 

                Tennessee                             1, 3                                          6                                              In force

 

                West Virginia                        1, 3                                          6, 8                                          In force

 

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* The Texas statute refers to victims selected “because of the defendant’s bias or prejudice against a person or group;” no particular groups of persons are named.  Berrill (1992, 15) argues that since the law requires police to collect statistics in accordance with the Federal Hate Crimes Statistics Act, which includes sexual orientation, the Texas law includes sexual orientation.  The law is so vague, however, that it has been declared unenforceable.

 

Note: Many hate crime laws were passed in segments, with more areas and groups covered over time.  The date of passage listed is the first known year any policy action was taken.

 

 

_____________________________________________________________________________________

                Key:        Areas Covered                                                     Groups Covered

                                1 = Bias-Motivated Violence and                      6 = Race, Ethnicity, Religion

                                                Intimidation                                           7 = Sexual Orientation

                                2 = Civil Action                                                    8 = Gender

                                3 = Criminal Penalty                                             9 = Mental or physical disability or handicap

                                4 = Data Collection**

                                5 = Training for Law Enforcement

 

** States with data collection statutes including sexual orientation are AZ, CA, CT, DC, FL, IL, IA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, OR, RI, TX, UT, and WA; these states do not necessarily include sexual orientation in the criminal penalty aspect of their hate crime laws.

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Notes: This table is offered only as a general guide and should not be used as a basis for litigation.

 

Ó 2000, Donald P. Haider-Markel, University of Kansas

 

 

 

 

Sources

 

Berrill, Kevin T.  1992.  Countering Anti-Gay Violence Through Legislation. Washington, DC: National

                Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute.

 

“Delaware Group Pushing Bill,”  Philadelphia Gay News,  21 March 1997.

 

“Editorial,”  The Arizona Republic,   18 February 1997.

 

Fischer, Howard.  “Symington Vows to Kill Hate-Crime Legislation,”  Arizona Daily Star, 13 April 1997.

 

“Hate Crime Bill Targets Del.,”  The Fairfax Journal,  14 July 1997.

 

Hucks, Karen,  “Activist seeks help for gays in schools,”  The Morning News Tribune, March 19, 1997

 

Hucks, Karen.  “Tumwater Council OKs Domestic Partners Benefits; Policies Also Revised on Affirmative

                Action and Nondiscrimination in Employment,” The Morning News Tribune, 14 May 1997.

 

Jones, Christopher.  “Virginia Subcommittee Not Charged With Studying Anti-Gay Hate Crimes,” The

                Washington Blade, 14 March 1997.

 

Jones, Christopher. “More Anti-Gay Bills Passed in State Legislatures; Pro-Gay Measures Approved in

                Arizona,” The Washington Blade, 16 May 1997.

 

Jones, Christopher.  “‘Laying The Groundwork’ Pays Off in The States,”  The Washington Blade,

                1 August 1997.

 

Jones, Christopher. “Virginia Launches Study of Anti-Gay Hate Crimes,” The Washington Blade,

                29 August 1997.

 

Lesbian & Gay Law Association of Greater New York.  1995f. "Lesbian/Gay Legal News." Lesbian/Gay

                Law Notes, June 1995.  New York: Lesbian & Gay Law Association of Greater New York.

 

Lesbian & Gay Law Association of Greater New York.  1996h. “Lesbian/Gay Legal News.” Lesbian/Gay

                Law Notes, September 1996.  New York: Lesbian & Gay Law Association of Greater New York.

 

Lesbian & Gay Law Association of Greater New York.  1997a. “Lesbian/Gay Legal News.” Lesbian/Gay

                Law Notes, January 1997.  New York: Lesbian & Gay Law Association of Greater New York.

 

Lesbian & Gay Law Association of Greater New York.  1997c. “Lesbian/Gay Legal News.” Lesbian/Gay

                Law Notes, March 1997.  New York: Lesbian & Gay Law Association of Greater New York.

 

Louisiana Electorate of Gays And Lesbians.  1995.  May 24, 1995: LA-News: Hate Crimes Bill. New

                Orleans, LA: Louisiana Electorate of Gays And Lesbians.

 

Louisiana Electorate of Gays And Lesbians.  1997.  May 21, 1997 Legislative Update. New Orleans, LA:

                Louisiana Electorate of Gays And Lesbians.

 

Louisiana Electorate of Gays And Lesbians.  1997.  May 22, 1997 Legislative Update: Louisiana Hate

                Crimes Bill Passes Senate. New Orleans, LA: Louisiana Electorate of Gays And Lesbians.

 

Louisiana Electorate of Gays And Lesbians.  1997.  June 6, 1997.  Hate Crimes Bill Passes House

                Committee With "Sexual Orientation" Intact: Bill Now Heads To The House Floor.  New

                Orleans, LA: LEGAL.

 

Louisiana Electorate of Gays And Lesbians.  1997.  June 17, 1997: Louisiana Legislature Passes First Hate

                Crimes Bill; Louisiana Poised to Become 40th State With Penalty Enhancements for Hate Crimes;

                18th State to Include Sexual Orientation. New Orleans, LA: LEGAL.

 

McKinnon, Shaun.  “Hate Crimes Bill is Going to House Floor for a Vote,”  The Arizona Daily Star,

                5 April 1997.

 

McKinnon,  Shaun.  “Hate-crimes Bill Survives Twists, Gets House OK,” Arizona Daily Star,

                11 April 1997.

 

Mears, Jennifer.  “Hate Crime' Bill Passes Muster In Senate Committee,”  The Boulder Daily Camera,

                28 January 1997.

 

Miner, Betsy J., and Margarita Bauza.  “Scared To Death: Crimes Send Chill Through Gay Community;

                Groups, State Lawmaker Push For Law Punishing Acts Sparked By Hatred,”  Lansing State

                Journal,  1 July 1997.

 

National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.  1996.  Beyond the Beltway: State of the States 1995.  Final ed.

                Washington, DC: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force

 

National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.  1997.  Capital Gains and Losses: A State by State Review of

                Gay-Related Legislation in 1996. Washington, DC: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force

 

National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.  1997.  Task Force Legislative Update: 16 April 1997. Washington,

                DC: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.

 

Ofstedahl, Jeff.  “Symington Signs Hate Crimes Bill!,” Echo Magazine, 29 April 1997.

 

Seidel. Kim.  “New Hate Crimes Task Force Seeks Members,”  Winona Daily News,  31 May 1997.

 

Taylor, M. Jane.  “Three More States Pass Hate Crimes Measures,”  The Washington Blade,  4 July 1997.