Petras Hieroglyphic Documents

a web edition with commentary

inaugural date: 2 January 2005; last update:14 August 2010


Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger (jyounger@ku.edu)


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Notes
For best viewing results, widen this webfile to at least 25 cm.

In the commentary (not in the headings), CHIC documents (numbers preceded by #) in bold (e.g., #225) are sealstones or impressions.

In the "normalizations" (phonetic readings) suggested below, the phonetic identifications of the Hiero signs are based on Notes on the Signs, a separate study of the individual signs, their resemblances to Linear A/B signs and the patterns of their use in Hiero. The phonetic values of signs in black are considered certain; those in red are considered probable; and those in green are considered possible. With green values, sometimes only the consonant is guessed and the syllable is then rendered as in the following Kv.

A raised asterisk after the syllabogram indicates the reading is doubtful (e.g., *), similarly for the underlined transnumeration and normalization (e.g., 042 A).


Petras


Tsipopoulou, M., and E. Hallager (with contributions by C. D. Annibale and D. Mylona). 2010. Hieroglyphic Archive at Petras, Siteias. Athens: The Danish Institute at Athens.

Tsipopoulou, M., and E. Hallager. 1996a. "Inscriptions with Hieroglyphs and Linear A from Petras, Siteia," SMEA 37: 7-46, esp. 39-42.
Tsipopoulou, M., and E. Hallager. 1996b. "A New Hieroglyphic Archive from Petras, Siteia," Kadmos 35: 164-67.
Tsipopoulou, M. 1998. "The Hieroglyphic Archive from the Palatial Building at Petras," AJA 102; 391.


He 1 medallion comes from the Magazine Corridor (LM IB destruction context?).

An amphora impressed with a Hieroglyphic seal comes from House 1, room Φ: CMS V Suppl. 1B, no. 329 (see HieroSealsImps.html)

The rest of the documents come from the Hieroglyphic deposit, which fell during a conflagration in MM IIB from an upper room onto a hard yellow clay floor laid over the monumental N. doorway. The deposit consists of
crescents Ha 003-5
roundel Hc 002
medallions He 006-015
bars Hh 016, 017
sealstone impressions 01-06 of hieroglyphic sealstones
many sealings impressed by non-hieroglyphic sealstones
many fragments of once-inscribed texts

For crescents, the following denote the sides:

&alpha: the part of the surface which carries the seal impression(s) - usually found on top of the crescent.
&beta: the "concave" side of the crescent
&gamma: the flat reverse of the crescent
&delta: the "convex" side of the crescent

Palaeography & Pinacology (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 168-177)
There were at least 3 scribes at work on documents from the Hieroglyphic Deposit:

bars Hh 016 and 017 were written by two different people
crescent Ha 003 was written by a person different from that who produced bar Hh 016 and medallion He 001
bar Hh 016 was written by a person different from those who produced medallion He 011, medallion He 006, and medallion He 007

Since 4 documents (Hh 017, He 006, 007, and 008) are made of soft fine yellow clay and were inscribed by a very fine, well-pointed stylus, they may have been written by the same scribe.

Sign 042 is consistenly written with an incurved top and bottom line, like glyptic versions of the double-ax sign -- and like the sign on MA/Y Yb 01.

Vocabulary (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 176-77)
"None of the sign-groups found on the Petras documents have previously been attested in the corpus of hieroglyphic inscriptions. For this reason there is no comparative material."

JGY suggests possible comparanda below.


PE Ha 003, crescent (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 84 & 155-56). On top (α), an impression from a single seal. D. 3.7 x 1.6. Th. 1.15.

sideinscriptiontransnumeration
α PE 001 (palmette)
β039-070-068
γ042-023-011
δ*••-031-039-•

Possibly the preliminary document to the totalling document Hh 016.
β (p. 177). cf. PE Hh 016.b1: 50 039-070-086
γ. JGY: cf. PE He 001.A-B: X +• 042-033-011 040+•
δ. JGY: the space at end is insufficient for a fourth sign, and a four-sign wordgroup is itself not common.
JGY: If read consistent with the direction implied on γ, starting at the "left" end with 042, I normalize the direction of the readings as below, reading opposite sides together, α+γ then β+δ.

JGY normalizes
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
αPE 001: palmette
γ042-023-011A-TU-SI
β <>068-070-039 <>Rv-RO3-PA3
δ*• <>031-039-• <>RE-PA3-•


PE Ha 004, crescent (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 84 & 155-56). D. 2.05 x 1.7. Th. 1.13.

sideinscriptiontransnumeration
αdeestdeest
βdeest deest
γ034-•
δdeestdeest

γ: 034-054 possible. JGY: 034-056 TA-KU appears on KN #049.c1 and #061.d2.


PE Ha 005, crescent (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 86 & 155-56). D. 3.02 x [1.37]. Th. [1.15].
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
αdeest deest
β not visible/preserved, possibly vacat not visible/preserved, possibly vacat
γ not visible/preserved, possibly vacat not visible/preserved, possibly vacat
δdeest deest

"Since [no inscription or seal impression] can be seen, Ha 005 must probably be a crescent which was in the process of being prepared but had not yet been inscribed or given seal impression(s)."


PE Hc 002, roundel (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 80 & 157). This (and possibly ME 96/0444A, fragment) is the first roundel in a hieroglyphic context. D. 2.73 x 2.48. Th. 1.0.
sideinscription
asigillum, supra sigillum 1
bvacat

sigillum PE 021 (discoid? seal: curved stroke with dot in front, faint strokes. Pres. D. 1.1)


PE He 001 -- Medallion from E-W corridor of the N. magazines [LM IB destruction context?], just south of the eastern-most ashlar block [just outside and east of the entrance to Magazine 2, the second from the west] (M. Tsipopoulou and E. Hallager, "Inscriptions with Hieroglyphs and Linear A from Petras, Siteia," SMEA 37 (1996) 7-46, esp. 39-42)
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
aX X 042-033-011
b+[•]   703040+[•]   703

Comments
a: JGY: a heading; cf. PE Ha 003.c: 042-023-011. In the Notes to Sign 033, I suggest that it (besides being a predecessor to A*47) represents a voiced dental (Tv, Dv); if so, then 042-033 could join the list of other occurrences of A-TU at Petras (see note to PE Hh 016), with the alternative possibility of being a spelling variation on the more common A-DE heading in Hieroglyphic (cf. A-DU in Linear A).
b: The ligatured sign looks like 042 as it sometimes appears as a mason's mark.
b: JGY: The ligatured sign looks like an abbreviated 039 or an abbreviated and haftless 042. As a ligature, it resembles Linear A *566 (086+188) or *565 (086+'188'). *566 employs the standard form of 188 and occurs only by itself on KH roundels (Wc 2058-62). *565 employs a square version of 188 and occurs on HT 8b.5, a commodity that is measured in a fraction (J, 1/2) and presumably is disbursed to PA-JA-RE, and on HT 26b.4 (7 units contributed?).
JGY: It is remotely possible that the ligatured sign is Petras's way of writing <-- 057-040 KI-RO2 (also retrograde on MA #118b). For the number 703, cf. PE Hh 017.a 740.

JGY normalizes
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
a-bX     +[•]   703X 042-033-011   040+[•]   703A-/TvDv/-SI   RO2+[•]
OR
a-bX        703X 042-033-011   A*566   703A-/TvDv/-SI   RO2+[•]

Compare
a: if something like A-/TvDv/-SI, cf. Linear A: A-DU (common)
b: ?? <--- KI+RO2 ??


PE He 006, medallion fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 74 & 158-61). D. 3.70 x 3.39. Th. 1.25.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
a*042-023-049
bvacatvacat

a: 023 is probable but not certain.
JGY: A-TU, see the note to Hh 016. For 023, 031 might be preferred; see PE He 007.

JGY normalizes
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
a* 042-023 *049A-TU RO3
OR
a* 042-023 *174A-TU RE


PE He 007, medallion fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 74-75 & 158-61). D. 3.64 x [2.42]. Th. 0.84.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
a X X 056-031
b30[30[

a: X 038-031 possible (see KN #033.a, #044.a, #056.dA, #057.c, #069.v)
JGY: 056-031 is probably correct KU-RE meaning "paid" vel sim. (cf. KN #032.a1)
JGY: for the number 30, see He 010, He 011, Hh 016.d

JGY normalizes
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
a-b X 30[056-031 30[ KU-RE 30[


PE He 008, medallion (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 75 & 158-61). D. [2.05 x 1.49]. Th. 0.62.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
avest. vest.
bvacatvacat


PE He 009, medallion fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 75-76 & 158-61). D. 3.75 x 4.02. Th. 1.11.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
aX •** X •-072-019-070
b2020

a: [•] resembles an animal head, perhaps 018. 072 not absolutely certain.
a: JGY: cf. 019-070 NEW PYR Yb 1; 019-070-061 on #040.a1. Sign 072 usually is part of a transaction term (KA-PA3, KA-RO3) or modifies TELA (as Linear A KU does).
b: JGY: for the number, see He 012, 014; Hh 016.a2 + d

JGY normalizes
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
a-bX •* * 20 X •-072 019-070 20-KA SA-RO 20


PE He 010, medallion (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 76 & 158-61). D. 3.60 x [3.49]. Th. 1.01.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
a••••••
b3030

a: the first sign may be 042. JGY: if so, the statement is probably a heading -•-• 30 (cf. Ha 003.c, He 001). For the number 30, see He 007, He 011, Hh 016.d.


PE He 011, medallion fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 77 & 158-61). D. 3.05 x [2.16]. Th. 0.68.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
a*061-013-•
b3030

a: 061 could be 023 ; • cannot be 042, perhaps a sign similar to A *305 (cf. HT 9b.2) or an unusual variant of 034 .
JGY: for the first sign, 023 is more likely; cf. the similarly crisp zig-zag on Ha 003 and Hh 016a; if this were 061, it would be hapax beginning a word, whereas 061 is a common ending in the rest of the Hiero inscriptions. The parallels make it likely that 013 is BOS *152 -- see Notes to Sign 013 for the possibility that 013, as the median sign of a trisyllabic signgroup, needs to be separated out, creating a disyllabic transaction word plus logogram. Since A-TU occurs several times in the PE corpus (see note to Hh 016), and since 042 is possible here, I restore it.
JGY: for the number 30, see He 007, He 010, Hh 016.d

JGY normalizes and hypothesizes
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
a-b] 30042-]023 *152 30A-]TU BOS 30


PE He 012, medallion fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 77-78 & 158-61). D. 3.25 x [2.22]. Th. 0.58.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
a•-025-•
b20[20[

a: the first sign may be 072. The last sign may be one of the animal heads 011-016.
b: 20 is a minimum.
JGY: in Hallager's palaeography section (p. 173), he suggests this occurrence to 072; another possibility for the last sign is 005, although the dotted eyelashes are missing; cf. Hh 016.d: 20 025-056-005 20.
JGY: for the number, cf. He 009, 014; Hh 016.a2.

JGY normalizes and hypothesizes
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
a-b 20[072-005 *025 20[KA-Rv TE 20[
OR
a-b 20[072-025 *152 20[ KA-TE BOS 20


PE He 013, medallion (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 78 & 158-61). D. 3.63 x [3.33]. Th. 0.85.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
avest. vest.
b10[10[

b. the number is a minimum. JGY: for the number, see Hh 016.a1, Hx 018


PE He 014, medallion(?) fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 78-79 & 158-61). D. [2.17] x [1.95]. Th. 0.76.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
a] ] 041
b2020

JGY: for the number, see He 009, 012; Hh 016.a2+d

JGY normalizes
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
a-b] 20] *163 20] TELA 20


PE He 015, medallion fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 79 & 158-61). D. [1.23 x 0.94]. Th. [0.58].
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
avacat
bvacat


PE Hh 016, four-sided clay bar without suspension hole (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 71 & 161-65). D. 9.03 x 2.2 x 2.3.
sideinscriptiontransnumeration
aX 10 | 20 | 60 X 056-005 10 | 062-013-057-041 20 | 042-023-041 60
bX 50 | • 40 vacat X 039-070-086 50 | •-029-049 40 vacat
cX 64 | .1 vacat
                                .2 *•
X 011-006-092-033 64 | .1 vacat
                                        .2 040-029-078-•
d 20 vest. vacat025-056-005 20 vest. vacat

Possibly the totalling document for the preliminary document Ha 003.
b. (p. 177) Compare Ha 003β. Instead of 086, 068 is possible but it is never closed at top & bottom; to 086 there are two double strokes at the lower exterior part and four small strokes dropping from the upper horizontal line -- perhaps a new sign (JGY: in CHIC, 086 is hapax; 068 includes some examples on sealstones where the top and bottom are closed [#225.a, and especially close on #272.c]; MT & EH continue: I wonder therefore if 086 in CHIC isn't really another version of 068). Instead of •, perhaps 046 (JGY: 046 is possible).
c. The 2nd half of c is ruled horizontally with an inscription only in the upper zone (.2). • may be 031; numerals are less likely (JGY: "less likely" since tens are stacked in a column, not aligned in a row).
c1. JGY: 033 is crammed against 092. Since the bar was written right to left, the 2nd half begins with the inscription and ends with the vacat.
c2. JGY: while I agree with MT+EH that 031 is preferable to 30, 30 makes better transactional sense. For the number 30, see He 007, He 010, He 011.

JGY: the normal way to read a bar is from opposite side to opposite side (see Homepage, "Document Types, Bars"). If d is the last transaction, then the reading should be a+c (which also ends abruptly) and b+d.

Transaction Document.
List 1
aX 10 X 056-005 10
20062-013-057-041 20
60 042-023-041 60
cX 64 X 011-006-092-033 64
30040-029-078 30
vacat vacat

List 2
bX 50 X 039-070-068 50
40 vacat 046-029-049 40 vacat
d 20025-056-005 20
vest. vacatvest. vacat
In list 1 (a+c) the target amount is 60 (a.3), of which 50 (20+30) has been paid leaving 10 owing ( 056-005 KU-Rv); c.1 seems to express an actual amount 64 (an actual amount that may have been needed? or perhaps a disbursement of raw material to be worked, 60 of which are then expected to be returned?). In list 2 (b+d) the target amount is implied to be 110, of which 90 (50+40) has been paid, leaving 20 owing (TE-KU-Rv); TE is less likely to be a commodity than, as in the HT Linear A documents, a transaction sign signifying "from", i.e., origin or delivery (cf. PE He 012). The commodity in list 1 is TELA (a.1, 2, possibly also in list 2). This must be a preliminary document since so little has actually been collected -- and the bar is not pierced, so therefore not meant for hanging, which, if correct, would imply that only final or quasi-final documents hung from something.

JGY: in the Petras corpus • A-TU-• appears 3 times (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 177), probably 4 times (cf. He 011) and possibly 5 times (cf. He 001).

PE Ha 003.a 042-023-011A-TU-SI
PE Hh 016a 042-023-041A-TU-WA
PE He 006.a * OR 042-023 *049 orf *174A-TU RO3 or RE
PE He 011.a 042-023-013A-TU BOS
PE He 001.a 042-033-011A-*033-SI

In the last (possible) occurrence, CHIC *033 may be the predecessor to Linear AB *047 and may have had represented a dental phoneme (see Notes to Sign 033), thus Tv/Dv.

All five possibilities, therefore, suggest that, at Petras, A-TU is written for the more common A-DE in the rest of the Hieroglyphic corpus, predecessor to A-DU in Linear A.

JGY normalizes
List 1
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
a.3 60 042-023 *163 60A-TU TELA 60
a.2 20062-013-057 *163 20NA-MU2-KI TELA 20
a.1X 10 X 056-005 10 X KU-Rv 10
c.2a 30040-029-078 30RO2-MA-DO 30
c.2bvacat vacat vacat
c.1X 64 X 011-006-092-033 64 X SI2-NWA-RU-*033 64


List 2
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
b.1X 50 X 039-070-068 50 X PA3-RO-Rv 50
b.2 40 vacat 046-029-049 40 vacat *046-MA-RO3 40 vacat
d 20025-056-005 20 vest. vacat TE-KU-Rv 20
or d 20056-005 *025 20 vest. vacat KU-Rv TE 20 vest. vacat

Transaction Summary
List 1
TELA: assessment <paid>[deficit]actual amount??
a.3: 60c.2a: 30
a.2: 20
a.1: 10c.1: 64

List 2
assessment of ??<paid>[deficit]
[110]b.1: 50
b.2: 40
d: 20


PE Hh 017, four-sided clay bar (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 72-73 & 161-65). No suspension hole. D. 6.48 x 2.0 x 1.8.

sideinscriptiontransnumeration
a[•]** 740[•]-080-057-070 740
bX [•] 3500 X 042-[•] 3500
c vest.-[•]vest. vest.-[•]-vest.
dvacat

c: • may be 078.
JGY: again, if opposite sides are read, then it should read a with c, and b with d. If the 2nd sign on b is 066, then it again is a divider between A and a number; see Notes to Sign 066.
JGY: The high number 3500 should represent an assessment, to which 2760 has been paid (side c?) and 740 is still owed (KI-RO). The large number 3500 is somewhat similar to the largest number in the CHIC Hiero corpus: 6400 which is given as a supernummery number in #049 (that is, the rest of the bar concerns 1100 [[200]] and its subdivisions; apparently #049 concerns MUL and possibly also • 027-•). The largest numbers in Linear A are linked to logograms: 1060 GRA+PA (HT 102) and 3000 VAS (HT 31), also (no logogram) 1000 (KH 81), 2000 (MA 10).
JGY: If a transaction document (below), side a clearly gives the deficit (KI-RO 740); the large amount 3500 should be the assessment, we would then expect 2760 to have been paid. Since side b begins with X, that side may start the document. We would arrange the document d+b then c+a.

Transaction Document
b: assessmenta: [deficit]c?: <paid>
3500•- 740vest. [2760]

JGY normalizes
sideinscriptiontransnumerationnormalization
dvacat
bX 3500 X 042-• 3500X A-3500
c vest.vest. vest.-•-vest.[KU-RO 2760]
a     740•-080 057-070 740•-080 KI-RO 740


PE Hx 018 (ME 97/00030A), bar or label? (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73 & 165-66).
inscriptiontransnumeration
] | 10|[] | 10|[

Two straight lines flank the numeral.


PE Hx 019 (ME 96/0665(2)E), fragment perhaps part of Ha 004, a crescent (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 86 & 165-66).
sideimpressiontransnumeration
γ] •] •


PE Hx 020 (ME 96/0433C), fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 118 & 165-66).
inscriptiontransnumeration
vest.vest.


PE Hx 021 (ME 96/0430D), fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 118 & 165-66).
inscriptiontransnumeration
] • [] • [


PE Hx 022 (ME 96/1208B), fragment, undoubtedly of a crescent (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 118 & 165-66).
inscriptiontransnumeration
] • [] • [


PE Hx 023 (ME 96/0665F), fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 118 & 165-66).
inscriptiontransnumeration
] vest. [] vest. [


PE Hx 024 (ME 97/Misc 3A), fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 119 & 165-66).
inscriptiontransnumeration
]vest.[]vest.[


PE Hx 025 (ME 96/1145C), fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 119 & 165-66).
inscriptiontransnumeration
]vest.[]vest.[


PE Hx 026 (ME 97/Misc 2A), fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 119 & 165-66).
inscription transnumeration
][039

The sign could equally be an initial X.


PE Hx 027 (ME 97/0051F), fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 119 & 165-66).
inscription transnumeration
vest.vest.


PE Hx 028 (ME 96/Misc 4D), fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 120 & 165-66).
inscription transnumeration
]vest.[]vest.[


PE Hx 029 (ME 96/Misc 4D), fragment (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 73, 120 & 165-66).
inscription transnumeration
]vest.[]vest.[

The edge carries a seal impression: PE 054a: geometric design.


PE I 01, stopper? sealing over a vase rim? (ME 97/0052) (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 115), impression from seal PE 028, perhaps a stamp (EH says perhaps a prism)
inscription transnumeration
*•049-052-044-•

044 is uncanonical in shape, but cf. CHIC #152; an alternative would be 042. The sign in the center is a very deeply engraved square with a less deeply engraved triangle on the top, perhaps *157 AROM as on #291.
JGY: the inscription makes better sense retrograde, with 044-049 KU-RO3 as a common version (especially on seals) of KU-RO, "total," flanking the logogram 049 or . This kind of placement (two signs of a disyllable signgroup flanking the logogram) is common ("monogram"); see Notes to Signgroups VII.

JGY normalizes

inscription transnumerationtranscription
* 044-049 *052 KU-RO3 NE
OR
* 044-049 *157 KU-RO3 AROM


PE I 02 (ME 96/0742) (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, ), peg sealing (cf. MA, CMS II.6, no. 183), impression from seal PE 010, a prism
inscriptiontransnumerationtranscription
[070 [RO [


PE I 03 (ME 0020B) (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, ), impression from seal PE 038, probably a prism or a diskoid
inscriptiontransnumerationtranscription
••013-•-•MU2-•-•


PE I 04 (ME 0025A) (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, ), combination sealing, impression from seal PE 029, a rectangular prism
inscriptiontransnumerationtranscription
••038-•-•JA-•-•

perhaps 038-010-031 (or 038-010)


PE I 05 (ME 0025A) (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, ), combination sealing, impression from seal PE 030, a prism
inscriptiontransnumerationtranscription


PE I 06 (ME 0309B) (Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010, 86), perhaps part of a crescent, impression from seal PE 017, perhaps a stamp
impressiontransnumerationtranscription
] * [] 056 [] KU [


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Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger (jyounger@ku.edu)