Notes to the Hieroglyphic Signs

inaugural date: 23 August 2004; last update: 24 September 2013


Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger (jyounger@ku.edu)


Catface - Evans, SM P75 Catface or Cat Mask = MA

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 80 / MA/ma; the phonetic value of the sign then imitates the sound of the cat, much as 012 MU does..

The several occurrences of the sign (#007.g2, #157, #196, #247, #295, #304) have Linear parallels that support this identification.


001 = VIR1 - once at KN (#041), one sealstone (#240)

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB VIR. The seal #240 presents "total men", a phrase that recurs in Linear A.


002 = VIR2 - KN, MA/P+V - NO MA/Mu.

003 VIR3 is VIR2 with *026 over the head; compare VIR2 and VIR3 with Phaistos Disk signs *03 and *02.

VIR2 recurs as a terminal sign in three signgroups (#058.c2, #112.c/#113.a, #328), perhaps as an adjunct or enclitic; TA-VIR2 recurs twice (#328 and #058.c2) (cf. Linear B, TA as supervisor). QE-VIR2 probably recurs twice (#113.a, #112.c?) and may relate to the common Linear A VIR+KA.


003 = VIR3 - KN, MA/P- NO MA/Mu.

003 VIR3 is VIR2 with *026 over the head; compare VIR2 and VIR3 with Phaistos Disk signs *03 and *02.

The sign appears four times, on #049.d, #053.aA, #060.a, and #109.a.

On #109 and #049 the sign is related to SA-RO, an important placename.

On #053, the sign refers to a group of people who receive rations, and the same signgroup recurs on #060.a: this is probably to be construed as KU2-RO3 (that is, "total") WA (or TELA, cloth) VIR3. The signgroup may imply that VIR3 is a cloth-worker, and therefore probably female, though Mycenaean Knossos had male specialist cloth workers.

Bar #053 also lists a series of rations (?) for 22 persons ( VIR1, possibly actually VIR3).

Bar #049 tallies an assessment of 1100 personnel at SA-RO2; this is divided into two targets of 550 each, 550 • and 550 KU2-RO2"total" MUL, of whom 230 VIR3 are listed as probably contributed. Thus, VIR3 is a subset of MUL.

#109.a, b presents: SA2-RU; is this Mallia document mentioning the same kind of person at the same place as #049c, d from Knossos? (SA-RO2 ). In other words is female, and is SA2-RU the way Mallia spells Knossos's SA-RO?

Parallels between #049 and #056 suggest that the branch 026 feminizes.


004 = MUL - one document (KN #049), one sealstone

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB MUL.

The occurrence of MUL on document #049.d1 indicates that the sign can be associated with totals (#049.d1).


005 = Rv - KN (once at MA/P, ZA, PK) - NO MA/Mu

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to AB 79 / ZU/zu.

The sign's most common occurrence is in the signgroup 044-005 on sealstones but also twice incised on a document (#018.g2, #059.aA2); the signgroup seems to be a transaction term, probably related to KI-RO ("owed") in Linear A . For this reason, the phonetic value is identified as some type of R+vowel.


006 = NWA - KN, MA/Mu+P+N, PE - ALL

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to B 48 nwa.

Morphologically, the sign should be similar to AB NWA, and Linear A parallels to the signgroups it appears in support this identification, especially in PE Hh 02.A-B and #276).


007 = MI - KN, MA/Mu+P

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 73 / MI/mi.

Palaeographically, 007 resembles several versions of AB 73 MI.

Several of the Linear A parallels seem close enough to confirm the phonetic identification, especially in #090.a-b, #098.a, #296.a, #314.c, #043.a1, #114.a, and #070.


008 = A3 , 009 = A2 , 042 = A

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identifies 042c as similar in shape to AB 08 / A/a. Since all three signs are initials (the case for 042 needs arguing; see below) and since they seem to be interchangeable in some signgroups, the two "hand" signs (008 , 009 ) may be variants on 042c , and have the phonetic value "A."

Since 008 appears more often on seals and since 009 appears more often in the clay documents, it is possible that the distinction between the two is by medium.

Variations on the same signgroup using 042 , 008 , and 009 .

 042 A008 A3009 A2
-019-070: A-SA-RO >< - #222.b * - #061.c
-038: A-JA - #154 etc. - #297.b1 
-053: A-JA - #151 - #187 
-054-061: A-DE- - #037.a etc. * - #060.c
-056-031: A-KU-RE
-056-070: A-KU-RO
-056-061: A-KU-
-056-062: A-KU-NA
- #061.a2
 
 
 
 
- #132
 
 
*- #104.a-b

- #018.b; #156
- #126
-070-060: A-RO-KO(-KU)- #074.a - #112.d 


009 = A2 - KN, MA/Mu (once at MA/P)

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to B 52 no (A 52 is not yet attested).

If this sign functions as a variant on 042 (see above, 008), and has the phonetic value of /A/, the resulting Linear A parallels support that value. For    X A2-KU-NA X SA2-QE (#126), The Linear A parallel A-KA-NU-ZA-TI (KN Zc 7) is especially impressive.


010 = RI - KN, MA/Mu (once at HT)

The sign's shape may have influenced the form of AB 53 RI; the dot in the middle of the Linear A sign (GORILA V p. xxxvi) may derive from the drilled kneecap on the Hieroglyphic sign on sealstones.

The Linear A parallels suggest a confirmation of the phonetic value.


011 = SI - KN, MA/Mu+P, PE (once at MA/P) - ALL

Signs 011 , 012 , 013 , & 015 do not appear in signgroups with each other.

According to Notes to Signgroups, App. II, "the anagram,", 011 should be S+v, perhaps SI.

Morphologically, could develop into AB 41 SI; cf. Hieroglyphic X >< X 070-056-057-011 >RO-KU-KI-SI, and its Linear A parallel A-RA-KO-KU-*333- (KO (?) Zf 2).Sign *333 resembles a bull face.

There are enough Linear A parallels to suggest a phonetic value approximating /sia/ or /siu/.


012 = MU - MA/Mu+P, PE - no KN

Signs 011 , 012 , 013 , & 015 do not appear in signgroups with each other.

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as as similar in shape to AB 23 / MU/mu, as if 012 is turned clockwise 90 degrees and flipped. The phonetic value of the sign then imitates the sound of the bovine, much as Catface MA does. The Linear A parallels provide some support for this phonetic identification.

In the following 2 pairs of examples, one signgroup uses 012 , the other uses 013 , as if interchangeable; as an logogram, however, 013/*152 seems to function as BOS (see below).

1.
042-012-061 30PE He 04.A-B* 30A-MU- 30: possibly A BOSA-MA (HS Zg 1; MA 1b.1; ?ZA 7b.1), A-MA-JA (KH 14.1)
042-013-009[#091.a[A-MU2-A2[; more likely: A-A2 BOS (see below)A-MA-JA (KH 14.1)

2.

012-050; cf. 013-050 (#264.a)#113.cA MU-TI]-TA-NU-MU-TI (KN Za 10)
013-050 *004; cf. 012-050 (#113.cA)#264.aX    MU2-TI MUL]-TA-NU-MU-TI (KN Za 10)


013 = BOS/MU2 - KN, MA/Mu+P+V

Signs 011 , 012 , 013 , & 015 do not appear in signgroups with each other.

Sign 013 usually acts as logogram *152, appearing often in the middle of a trisyllabic signgroup, whose outer two signs make a transaction word; see Notes to Signs VII.

The sign 013 , however, may also function as a substitute syllabogram MU2 for 012 ; for its phonetic value, see the notes to 012. The Linear A parallels seem to support this identification, especially the two versions of A-RU-MU2- on #003.g and seals #139 and #164.


014 = I - sealstones only

Morphologically, the Hieroglyphic sign seems close to A 28b , which appears to be based on an animal head with either horns or long ears; the phonetic value, then, would be I which the Linear A parallels support (#245.g, #275.c, #294.b, #300.d).


015 = DU/DO2? - MA/M (#079) & PE

Signs 011 , 012 , 013 , & 015 do not appear in signgroups with each other.

Morphologically, it is possible that the sign is the predecessor to Linear B 14 do; since sign 078 is even closer to Linear B 14 do, I suggest tentatively that 015 is /Dv/ (e.g., DU or DO2).

For the 2 occurrences of the sign (#079, PE Hh 02), a phonetic value of Dv (and Rv) yields possible Linear A parallels.


016 = KI - KN, MA/Mu+P

Its shape looks like a plausible prototype for AB 21 QI.

Appendix IIC.1 & 2 makes a plausible case for phonetic KI, which is supported by the following occurrences.

1. Signgroup / 042-049-016-016-056/077 seems complete; the insertion of 056 before 077 may imply a similarity of sound between 056 KU and either 016 or 077, more likely the former since on #112.a1 the second 016 is written over an erased 056 (also see the inscription on #294.d2). The possible recurrence of 016-077 (#290.d) may imply that it is a suffix. There is no Linear A word that satisfies the requirement -A-Rv-Cv-Cv-, but in retrograde there is KI-KI-RA-JA, a heading on HT 85b.1.

2. The following two inscriptions give further support for the phonetic value of 016 as KI since the order of the two signs, 057-016 or , 016-057 does not seem to matter.
057-016#003.d2 X KI-KIKI-KI-NA (HT 88.2), KI-KI-RA-JA (HT 85b.1)
016-057-013-074#053.c2X   *KI-KI BOSKI-KI-NA (HT 88.2), KI-KI-RA-JA (HT 85b.1)

3. The combination 016-038 seems assured; if so, the reassignment on #098.a of 016 to the end of the signgroup may have been an attempt to correct its omission at the beginning. This reconstruction is supported on #090.a,    7000 016-038-007 051 7000: 051 is physically separated from the rest of the signgroup. With phonetic values, becomes KI-JA-MI for which there is Linear A ]-KE-JU-MI[ (KN Za 19).


017 = AU - KN, MA/Mu

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 85 / AU/au.

For the phonetic value of AU, three of its six occurrences place the sign next to /A/ /JA/ signs ( 042, 038, 009, 053), as if emphasizing its vowel-character (#021.g-d, #039.b1, #128).


018 = RA4 - KN, MA/N - no MA/Mu or MA/P

The sign appears in one signgroup on one document and a Chamaizi vase; otherwise, it appears on sealstones. A few Linear A parallels suggest the phonetic identification (#255.a/#300.c, #296.a, #306.d).


019 = SA - KN, MA/Mu+P+V, SAM, PYR, PE - ALL

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 31 / SA/sa.


020 = AI - KN, MA/Mu+P

The sign occurs in 11 signgroups. A few occurrences suggest a phonetic value of /A/, perhaps /AI/; compare the sign's form with Linear B 043 ai (if turned 90 degrees counterclockwise, the wings of the "fly" could become the legs of the Linear B sign).


021 = PI - KN, MA/Mu

W.C. Brice, "Notes on Linear A. VI: Hieroglyphic Antecedents of Linear Signs," Kadmos 30 (1991) 46-48, suggests the formal similarity with Linear AB 39 PI.

The sign occurs in only two signgroups, both preceded by a syllabogram with the phonetic value Rv ( RE-PI- #059.cB1, #149, #197; and RO3-PI- 050.d).


022 = VIR4 - once, on MA/M #071, cone.

Although the sign appears only once ( VIR4 KU-RO-), its identification as a VIR logogram is based on its anthropoid appearance and its association with the common transaction term for "total" or "paid." If the sign had a phonetic value, it is barely possible to see in it (if turned upsidedown) a predecessor to Linear B 62 pte, which strongly resembles a Horns of Consecration; cf. Linear A PO-TO-KU-RO (HT 122b.6, HT 131b.4).


023 = TU - KN, MA/Mu+P+N, PE - ALL

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to the B logogram 144 (crocus).

Morphologically, the sign seems related to AB TU . As a logogram *154 it seems to function as OLIVA , which finds support in the fact that in the Linear A documents OLIVA appears either unmodified or modified only by TU, as in OLIV+TU (HT 50a.4, HT 101.6, HT 116a.5).

The most common appearance of 023 is in the disyllabic signgroup 057-023 KI-TU (#39.b2, #049.b1, #055.a, #113.d, #243.g, #324; cf. #027.d), apparently a name with parallels in Linear A (KI-TA-I, JA-KU-TI, KA-TI, vel sim.).


024 = NI

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 30 / NI/ni

Morphologically, the sign seems assured as NI, but it occurs only once ( NI-TI #043.a3), and there it is the syllabogram not the logogram for figs (FIC).


025 = TE - KN, MA/Mu+P+V

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to AB 04 / TE/te.

Morphologically this identification seems convincing, and it appears as a logogram on #120.r.B like Linear A TE; Linear A provides good parallels for some of the sign's occurrences, especially for the rare doubling of TE-TE (#294.g2).


026 = ?

The sign occurs by itself once (#056.c) and as an adjunct to 002 VIR2 to form 003 VIR3 - cf. the notes to VIR2 and VIR3 (where I suggest it feminizes VIR2).


027 = RA3 - KN, MA/Mu

The sign occurs in only three clay inscriptions; the Linear A parallel for the signgroup on #073 suggests the possibility of /RA/. It is possible that this is the sign for /RA/ on clay documents while 095 is the sign for /RA/ on sealstones.


028 = KU2 - KN, MA/Mu+P, PYR - ALL

The sign seems almost always to be an initial, followed, almost invariably, by signs with the phonetic value Rv 028-070 #081, #133, #307.b; 028-049 #011.g, #012.g, #053.aA, #059.aA1 & dB, #060.a, #317), strongly suggesting that is Kv, probably /KU/. In addition, three times, it appears with VIR2 (#058.d1, #059.bA2) somewhat like Linear A VIR+KA (common); it also appears in the signgroup KU2-RO2 MUL (#049.d1), apparently totaling women.


029 = MA - KN, MA/Mu+V, PYR

According to Notes to Signgroups, App. II, the "anagram," 029 should be MA.

Several of the Linear A parallels are plausible, especially for the inscriptions A-ZE-MA-TU on #023.g-d and A-MA-RE-SI on #057.a


030 = PU2? - two occurrences

Morphologically, the sign could be the possible predecessor to AB 29 / PU2/pu2.


031 = RE - KN, MA/Mu+P

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 27 / RE/re; the consonant receives support from Grammar Sequences 2b and 6b.

The sign also functions occasionally as logogram *174 (e.g., #052.a2); cf. Linear A documents ARKH 4a.2; HT 26a.2, 26b.2, 26b.5; HT 41a.3.


032 = RE2- KN, MA/Mu+P

The sign might be a second RE, based on shape.

If so, Linear A parallels look supportive for its occurrence on #020.b, #057.a., #058.b2 & d2.


033 = A *047 - KN, PE

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to A *047.

On PE Hh 02, signgroup A*47-QE-NWA-SI (read retrograde) has a plausible Linear A parallel *47-KU-NA(-SA) (ZA 15a.1).

From most of the occurrences of A *047 in Linear A, the sign might have been a dental:
DE-SU-[•]-*047-TE (ARKH 4a.3-4)SU-KI-RI-TE-I-JA, ]SU-DU-RI-TE
QA-MI-*047-NA-RA (KN Zf 31)TA-NA-RA-TE-U-TI-NU, WA-PI-TI-NA-RA2
]*304+PA-DA-*047-KU[ (HT 127a.d)DA-NE-KU-TI, DA-RE-KU[
*047-KU-NA(-SA) (ZA 15a.1)DA-KU-NA, *065-KU-NA
*047-NU-RA-JA (HT 115a.1)]-TE-NU-RE[


034 = TA - KN, MA/Mu+P+V

Grammar Sequence 2 suggests that 034, 011, and 019 share the same consonant, Sv.

Morphologically, however, if rotated clockwise 90 degrees, the sign can be the predecessor to Linear A TA 59.

Most of the Linear A parallels seem plausible for a phonetic value of TA.


035 = SU - MA/P

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to AB 58 / SU/su on morphological grounds. Grammar Sequence 6, however, suggests the consonant to be Rv.

The sign only occurs three times (#105.aB, #115.b, #119.c), and the Linear A parallels are not helpful.


036 = SA2 - MA/Mu+P (once at KN)

The sign occurs mostly on sealstones, mostly as SA2-RU parallel to Linear A SA-RU / SA-RA2.

On clay documents, the sign appears four times, once with only this sign of its signgroup preserved (#095.b2); the other three documents (#059.dA3, #109.b, #112.d) present two versions of the same two-sign signgroup (SA2-RE #112.d, SA2-RU #059.dA3, #109.b), which seems to have a secure Linear A parallel (SA-RA2, SA-RU).


037 = Rv - KN (3 times)

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 54 / WA/wa;

According to Notes to Signgroups, App. II, "the anagram," 037 should be Rv.


038 = JA - KN, MA/Mu+P+V, PH - ALL

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to AB 57 / JA/ja.


039 = PA3 - KN

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 56 / PA3/pa3.

Several apparent alternative spellings in Linear A seem to support the identification AB 56 = PA3:
PA3 -*188SU-PU2-*188 - one of the few occurrences of *188, whose blocky shape looks much like *60 RA (see SU+PA3+RA, below)
SU+PA3+RAsee SU-PU2-*188, above
DU-PA3-NAJA-NA-KI-TE-TE-DU-PU2-RE, A-PA-DU-PA-[, DE-PO-NI-ZA
KU-PA3-RI-JAKU-PA-RI - possibly a root, for which KU*056-RI-JA is adjectival
I-DA-PA3-I-SA-RIPA-SA-RI-JA - possibly an adjectival, whose root can be seen in the compound signgroup I-DA+PA3-I-SA-RI
I-KU-PA3-NA-TU-NA-TE[]PA-NA-TU
SE-SA-PA3 A-SI-SU-PO-A - ??
]PO-DI-PA3A-PA-DU-PA-[ - ??

With this phonetic identification, Hiero document #040.a1 and Linear A documents HT 6, 94, 102, 105 contain the same heading ( 072-039 KA-PA3), a heading also in Linear A (KA-PA, HT 6a.1) and the same words (SA-RO2, KU-RO, Rv-R-).


040 = RO2 - KN, MA/Mu+P, PE - ALL

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 86 / , value unknown. Morphololgically, however, sign 040 , as a boat-shape, could have compressed into B *68 , ro2. Its appearance in #118.b makes the identification certain (see Younger 2003, sections 19-20).


041 = WA, TELA - KN, MA/Mu+P+V, PYR, PE - ALL

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 54 / WA/wa.

As logogram, the sign = Linear A *051 TELA (HT 38, HT Wc 3019, Tel Haror TEL Zb 1). See Younger 2005.


042 = A - KN, MA/Mu+P+V, SAM, PE - ALL

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to AB 08 / A/a; this identification is certain.

In Linear A, A almost always appears only as an initial; it occasionally appears as a medial (fewer than 20 times), and usually then to duplicate or strengthen a preceding syllabogram whose vowel is -A. In Linear A, A never appears as a terminal.

In Hieroglyphic, the sign also seems to be used only as an initial (e.g., on document #057, all signgroups begin with the initial X, except 042-029-032-011 [#057.a], where, it might be presumed, the sign 042 was thought sufficient to indicate the beginning of the signgroup).

As another indication of the sign's initial placement, its haft often points to the edge of the document (e.g., #029.b & #329).

CHIC occasionally reads 042 as a medial or terminal (e.g., #029.b, #035.a, #095.a, b; #113.d, etc.); in my comments to each of these documents, I give reasons for an emended reading.


043 = SO - twice at KN.

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to B 12 so.

The sign's shape 043 may be the prototype for the ax-like sign A *364, which appears once: *364-KE-MA-SE (cf. O-KA-MI-ZA-SI-I-NA [PK 1.3-4]).

The sign appears on two documents (#039.a2, #042.a2) and three seals (#256.a-g, #265.b, #314 eta2-theta); except for its occurence on #265, it is associated only with a /Rv/ syllabogram.


044 = KO - KN, ZA, PK (once @MA/Mu+P) - ALL

Signgroup 057-034-044-049 (#302.a) conflates two common signgroups 057-034-056 KI-TA-KU and 044-049 KO-RO3, and demonstrates that 044 (here identified as KO) and 056 (here identified as KU) have similar phonetic structures. The consonant is supported by the following: if 049 and 040 are both /Rv/ (see notes to the signs), then both 044-049 #240) and [ 044-040[ #110.a) are /Kv-Rv/, that is, versions of KU-RO ("total").

For the vowel, the palaeographic form of 044 (see CHIC pp. 403-405) often is reduced to an arch above a triangle (cf. the sign on #040.b1 and #074.a); if the entire sign is inverted (esp. as it appears on #056a & b-e), the sign begins to look like Linear A 70, KO (compare AB 70 on HT 23a.5 as drawn on GORLIA V p. xxxix).

The sign rarely appears in signgroups that are not transaction terms.


045 = ZE - KN (3x), 1 seal

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to AB 74 / ZE/ze.

On two sealstones (#125, #298.b2), the sign appears in the penultimate position either next to /Tv/ or /Sv/, common Linear A endings.


046 = A *301 - KN (3x), seals.

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to A *301 ; Evans (SM 71, fig. 41) and Brice (Kadmos 30, 1991, 46-8) agree. For the phonetic identification of A *301, a possible /RTv/ sound, compare TA-NA-I-*301-U-TI-NU (IO Za 6) with TA-NA-RA-TE-U-TI-NU (IO Za 2.2); cf. I-NA-JA-RE-TA[ (AP Za 2).

On sealstones the sign occurs often but without convincing Linear A parallels for the signgroups; on the clay documents #019 and #030, however, there are good Linear A parallels for the signgroups.


047 = QE - KN, MA/M+P, PH, PE - ALL

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to B *142. The sign 047 seems morphologically similar to AB 78 / QE/qe; and 6 of the 7 examples of sign 047 incised on sealstones (see palaeographic chart on CHIC 405-6) have cross-hatching inside, which the dots inside AB 78 may reproduce. If 047-053 on #065.a2 is related to Linear A KO-JA (see notes to sign 053, below), then -RO-RE on #58.b1 and -RO on #286.b are versions of KU-RO (compare KU-RO-RO in #061.e). Thus, 047-092 #005) is a variation on 057-092 "owed". Cf. notes to #043.b1.


048 = ?

The sign occurs once only, on a sealstone (#236), where it may function simply as an image.


049 = RO3 - KN, MA/M+P, seals

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 20 / ZO/zo; CHIC p. 19 table suggests it is similar to AB 37 / TI/ti.

The sign appears most commonly as the terminal in two-sign transaction terms: 044-049, 072-049, terms that record types of totals. 044-049 KU-RO3 "contribution paid" is often paired with 044-005 KU-Rv "deficit" (e.g., #059).

The sign also substitutes for 031 RE (cf. #059.d with #059.cB1, #197, #149) and for 040 RO2 (cf. #307 with #049, #192).


050 = TI - KN, MA/P

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 37 / TI/ti; CHIC p. 19 table suggests it is similar to B 254 SAGITTA.

Evans, SM fig. 40, identifies this sign as the prototype for Lycian and Cypro-Minoan TI.

Sign 050 functions frequently as a terminal, much as Linear A's ZA does. Such a value, Zv, gets slight confirmation from 068-009-056-050-070 (#119.d) or -A-KU-Zv-RO; cf. Linear A TA-TE-I-KE-ZA-RE (KN Zf 31); an alternate rendering might be DA, as in #119.v. = -A-KI-DA-RO. On the other hand, 050 also functions as an initial, which Z- in Linear A (ZA or ZE) is not securely attested as ever doing.

Linear A parallels for the signgroups that contain 050 support the identification of TI.


051 = double mina, KU3 = A *312 - KN, MA/M+V

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to A *312 I & B *233 A PUGio

Compare X X 016-038-007-051 (#090.a-b) with X • X -072-038-007-016 (#098.a); if the phonetic identifications for 016 KI and 072 KA are correct, then the substitution of 016 KI for 051 makes sense if has the phonetic value of /Kv/, here rendered KU3 .

Sign 051 is also similar to Linear A logogram *312; it too modifies TELA (cf. CHIC #089.b2 & HT 38.4) and in a duplicated form. The notes to sign 041, TELA, demonstrates that 051 = the double mina, which, in Linear A is denoted by A *312 which should have a value of KU.

In one other respect, however, the two signs seem different: CHIC *051 comes in large quantities (120 on #039.b2, 450 on #051.a, 7000 on #090.a-b) as if it were counting commodities individually; Linear A *312 comes in singletons and fractions (1 on HT 49a.6 & KH 8.4, 1 J E on HT 124b.1, 2 on ARKH 3a.5), as if measured in bulk, which is the way the double mina of wool is measured (as on CHIC *089.b2).

To reconcile the two concepts is difficult. But, if we think of 051 as also indicating commodities arriving in bulk, perhaps that might explain the large numbers associated with it; for instance, in Linear A the only citations using similarly large numbers, apart from totals or debits, involve GRA [HT 15, 21, 22, 40, 52b, 92, 102, 116b,], VIR [HT 27, 105; KH 25], OVISf [HT 154; ZA 22], 402VAS [HT 31], E [KN 1], OLE (KN Zb 35), *180 [hides?] [MA 4, 6], and unidentified logograms (*309); and in Linear A numbers greater than 1000 are rare: *551 1000 (KH 81.2), ] 2000 (MA 9), and PA+TA+QE *402VAS 3000 (HT 31.6). Perhaps on 7000 (CHIC #090.a-b) or 450 (#051.a) refer to a bulk shipment of, say, 450 or 7000 pots, or 120 (#039.b2) refers to a group, say, of personnel numbering 120.


052 = NE - KN (#031), MA/M (#125, #130, both impressing crescents), seals

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 24 / NE/ne; Brice (Kadmos 30, 1991, 46-8) concurs.

Linear A NE functions almost exclusively as a final, including JA-SA-RA-A-NA-NE, but otherwise as an ending commonly -A-NE or -RA-NE (common on seals), penultimate -NE-SI or -NE-TE/I, or -NE-MI or -NE-MI-NA. CHIC 052 functions in precisely the same way (#031.a, #125, #130, #306.a).


053 = JA - KN, MA/M+P, PH - ALL

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to B *205 JUG.

Sign 053 A substitutes for 038 in the fairly common two-sign signgroup 042-038 A-JA and its variant 008-038 A3-JA; cf. Linear A A-JA (SY Za.2d, PK Za 18; PE Zc 4)

Document #001.g carries the inscription X * 070-031-034 X 053, in which functions as a logogram: RO-RE-TA X VAS; Linear A parallels suggest that this phrase becomes conventionalized as *401VAS+RA/U.

Finally, one of the few Linear A examples of a duplicated phoneme occurs as JA-JA[ (PK Za 18); this parallels 053-053-077 JA-JA-RU2 (#047.a) and 053-038-039 JA-JA-PA3 (#296.b).


054 = DE - KN, MA/M, ZA

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to B *204 EWER.

Palaeographically, it is possible that 054 is the predecessor to Linear AB 45 / DE/de.

The sign occurs often in the two-sign header 042-054 A-DE (#037.a; #050.a; #058.a; #062, #189, #293.g, #303.b) and its variants (#060.c, #057.c1), which is also a common Linear A header, both A-DE, A-DU, and JA-DI. It is likely that in PE He 1, the heading there is a variant on A-DE.

Other signgroups with this sign also have strong Linear A parallels.


055 = KE - KN, MA/M+P

Palaeographically, it is possible that 055 is the predecessor to Linear AB 44 / KE/ke. The Linear A parallels slightly support this identification: for example, [ KE-RO-RO3[ (#022.g.) - cf. KA-RE-RO (HT Wc 3003).

In three signgroups sign 055 is adjacent to 031 RE or 070 RO.


056 = KU - KN, MA/M+P, PE - ALL

The sign morphologically resembles an inverted Linear A KO *70. Signgroup 057-034-044-049 (#302.a) conflates two common signgroups 057-034-056 KI-TA-KU and 044-049 KO-RO3, and demonstrates that 044 (identified as KO) and 056 (here identified as KU) have similar phonetic structures.

Only with some difficulty can the sign be seen as a predecessor to AB 81 ; its appearnace on HT Wa 1518 and 1552 (GORILA 5, p. xli) looks perhaps like a schematic right-side up version of Hiero 056, but otherwise Linear A 81 seems to be based on some other predecessor.

The sign is the one usually used in the transaction term 056-070 KU-RO "total" or "total paid," and it is from this usage that the phonetic value has been determined (see Younger 2003).


057 = KI - KN, MA/M+P+N

Morphologically, the sign resembles an inverted AB 67 / KI/ki.

The sign is the one usually used in the transaction term 057-092 KI-RU "deficit" (see Younger 2003).


058 = PU - KN

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 29 / PU2/pu2.

The sign does not appear frequently; the Linear A parallels for the signgroups give some support for the phonetic identification: cf. PU-VIR2 058-002 (#053.e) with Linear A PU-VINa (HT 14.1, HT 123a.3-4); ]• ]•-PU-RE-KU ]•-058-031-056 (#053.aB) with PU2-RE-JA (PK Za 16, ZA Zb 34), and others.


059 = MA? - KN, MA/M

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to A fraction E.

Morphologically, the sign does not resemble any A or AB syllabogram.

The only Linear A parallel for SA-JA- is SA-JA-MA (HT 31.3); if MA is the value, the other signgroups containing this sign have plausible Linear A parallels: cf. WA-MA?-TE 041-059-025 (#320) with A-MI-TA (ZA 10b.4-5); MA?- DE-RE 059-054-031 (#017.g-b) with JA-MI-DA-RE (HT 122a.4); and others.


060 = KO2 - KN, MA/M+P

For the identification, see Evans, SM 71, fig. 39, where he identifies this sign as the prototype for Cypro-Minoan KO.

Sign 060 is often written next to 049 and 070 (e.g., KO2-RO3 060-049 [#099.a], KO2-RO-• 060-070-• [#029.g]), as if it were subsituting for 044 and 056 to form the transaction terms 044-049 and 056-070. Sealstone #271.g presents the three signs together, 060-044-056, as if to confirm the sign's phonetic identification as /Kv/; and #074 similarly presents 060 together with 044: 042-070-060-044. The signgroup on document #074 should probably be rearranged, therefore, to read > < >042 <044-060-070 A KO-KO2-RO, perhaps related to the heading A-KA-RU (HT 2.1, 86a.1 + b.1).


061 = termination sign - KN, MA/M+P, PE - ALL

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to B 75 we.

The sign seems to function only as a terminal, and may indicate the end of a signgroup or phrase (see CHIC pp. 365-6). On #034 and #294.g1, 061 spans the entire height of the row like a divider (cf. #040.a1 and b1); similarly, I read 061 on #036.a as lines (Brice Review, fn. 6).

The other exceptions are examined here (I omit examples of ]061- and -061-•[ and retrograde and circular readings).
doc.CHIC readingcommentemended reading
#095.b, 061-062-042042 is probably initial (see notes above) 042-062-061
#034.a[, 054-061-013[013 is probably *152 BOS [ 054-061 *152
#052.a 40, 063-047-061-031 40031 is probably *174 063-047-061 *174
#112.a, 057-070-061-005-019 separate into 2 signgroups 057-070-061 KI-RO- (cf. KI-RU, "deficit") = 005-019 Rv-SA; cf. RO-RE-TA (001.g, 091.b), and below or < 019-005 SA-Rv (SA-RA2)
#298.bX , X 070-061-019-045-070hatching separates 061 & 019X <[X] >X 070-061 <[X] 070-045-019; cf. bjg RO-RE-SI (001.g, 091.b)


062 = NA - KN, MA/M+V

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 06 / NA/na.

Linear A 06 NA not only retains the top dot in most occurrences, but dots create the haft as well (see GORILA 5, xxviii).

The Linear A parallels for the signgroups containing this sign give some support for the phonetic identification, especially A-KA-NU-ZA-TI (KN Zc 7) for X 009-056-062 X 036-047 A2-KU-NA X SA2-QE (#126).


063 = PA - KN, MA/P

Linear A 03 PA retains the central dot in 3 of its written occurrences (see GORILA 5, xxviii).

The Linear A parallels for the signgroups containing this sign give some support for the phonetic identification (e.g., cf. A-PA-KO 042-063-060 [#112.d, #113.d] with A-PA-KI [KN Zb 40.1], and PA-JA 063-038 [#112.c] with PA-JA [HT 41a.4]).


064 = DA

Morphologically, the sign could resemble AB 01 / DA/da; the sign, however, occurs only twice (#087, #330), in fragmentary signgroups whose direction of reading is not even certain.


065 = NU? - 4 times: KN, MA/M, PK

Morphologically, the sign could, with some imagination, resemble AB 55 / NU/nu (to keep the thickness, the Linear A sign is made with two uprights, joined above & below to resemble the thick ends of the Hieroglyphic sign).

It occurs on 5 seals (where it could be decorative) and in 2 documents (#009.g and #317) whose reading is not completely certain.


066 = ?

The sign occurs four times only (its reading on the seal #204 is doubtful); it probably is a divider.

Twice, it seems to separate A 042 from the rest of the inscription.

042-066-016-062 (#305), perhaps better read as KI-NA A 016-062 *175
042-066-077-042 (#095.a ), perhaps better read as A-RU2 A 042-077 *175

A third occurrence, it accompanies 071, which is also probably a divider: X 038-071-066-070 (#059.aB1), probably better read as X JA--RO (cf. JA+RU, HT 6a.3).


067 = ? - 1x at KN

The sign appears only once (#027.g).


068 = Rv - KN, MA/M

The sign is probably a terminal.

Inflection Sequence 2b suggests the sign had a phonetic value /Rv/, which the Linear A parallels confirm.

CHIC sign 086 is a hapax legomenon; 068 includes some examples on sealstones where the top and bottom are closed [#225.a, and especially close on #272.c], the latter looking very much like the sign identified as 086 in PE Hh 016.b2. Might 086 be another version of 068?


069 = RA2 - KN

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to AB 76 / RA2/ra2.

The Linear A parallels support this identification.


070 = RO - KN, MA/M+P+V, PYR, PE - ALL

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify the sign as similar in shape to AB 02 / RO/ro.

The sign is often used in the transaction term 056-070 KU-RO "total" or "total paid."


071 = ?

The sign occurs only three times (#059.aB1, *065.a, *066.c), but it may be a divider like 066 (q.v.).


072 = KA - KN, MA/P

Morphologically the sign does not resemble any AB sign. It is obvious from its usage in the transaction term 072-049 KA-RO3 that its phonetic value was /Kv/, probably KA.

It cannot be coincidence that #040.a1 and HT 6, 94, 102, 105 contain the same heading ( 072-039 KA-PA3) and the words (SA-RO2, KU-RO, Rv-Rv).

The sign also modifies TELA, as KU does in Linear A (HT 38a.3).


073 = KU4 - KN, MA/P

CHIC p. 19 table identifies this sign as similar in shape to A *309a; DOCS2 33 fig. 6 seems to identify 073 as similar in shape to AB 78 / QE/qe.

Morphologically the sign could be a predecessor to AB 77 KA; in signgroups, however, it seems to function in transaction terms more like KU.


074 & 075 = sets of numbers

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identify these signs as similars to AB 78 / QE/qe.

074 & 075 appear together and only once (#053.c), where it is clear that they function as sets of numbers, 20 and 30 respectively.


076 = O? on sealstones only.

Morphologically, the sign could be the predecessor to AB 61 (see GORILA V, p. xxxviii): the "handle" on the Hieroglyphic sign being transferred to the end of rectangle and the whole up-ended with the "handle" up. The sign appears in only three signgroups, for which there are scant Linear A parallels.


077 = RU2 - KN, MA/M+V

The sign is not morphologically related to any AB sign.

The sign is probably not an initial, and it appears mostly in the transaction term 056-077, "total" or "owed" (e.g., #113.b2, #328) or in the signgroup /A-RU/ (e.g., #039.a3, #047.a, #095.a).


078 = DO

Morphologically, the sign could be a predecessor for Linear B 14 DO. It appears in only four signgroups (#020.b2; #058.b2, d2; PE Hh 02.A-B), for three of which, however, Linear A parallels suggest a phonetic rendering DU.


079 = ? - The sign is not morphologically related to any AB sign, and it appears only once (#057.b1).


080 = ? - The sign is not morphologically related to any AB sign, and it appears only once (#092.a, PE Hh 017.a).


081 = ? - The sign is not morphologically related to any AB sign, and it appears only once (#077).


082 = ? - The sign is not morphologically related to any AB sign, and it appears only once (#080).


083 = ? - The sign may be a schematic version of sign 011 (see comments to #078).


084 = LANA, the equivalent of 3 double minas (sign 051, , the standard unit of weight, 2.89 kg, from 4 sheep in the Near East), and the predecessor to Linear B *135 (see Younger 2005).

The sign appears only once (#089.b1), but there it is stated that it refers to TA-TELA (cloth), probably the same as Linear A's TELA+TE, and that it is equal to 051-051-051; the Linear A sign 312 which also looks like a small dagger and occurs as an adjunct to TELA; perhaps it had the phonetic value of KU.


085 = WI

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 40 / WI/wi, for which there is scant Linear A support. The sign appears only twice (#041.b, #110.b).


086 = ? 068 . See comments to 068, above. The sign appears only once (#035.b).


087 = Linear A *301

Morphologically sign 087 should be the predecessor to Linear A *301.

The sign appears in only one document (#319: ]*, ]*-RO-RA3), along with the next sign 088 which is morphologically akin to Linear A *313.


088 = Linear A *313 .

Sign 088 occurs with sign 087 in one document, #319.

It appears only one other time: X 160 -003/VIR3 160 (#049.d2). If an adjunct, it would then function like Linear A *313 which occurs in three versions, all only with VIR (perhaps VIR occurred before the break in the sherd, #319). In three documents, Linear A VIR+*313 occurs at the end of a list (HT 89.3; HT 94a.2; HT 100.3) and just before the total (KU-RO; also see HT 127b.5); *313 occurs thrice more, as part of a couple VIR+*313b and CYP+D, on just one document KH 7a.2-5. It is possible, then, that the inscription on #319 contains some version of KU-RO.


089 = ?

The sign is not morphologically related to any AB sign, and it appears only twice (#047.b, #065.b4). It is possible that it functions as an adjunct to commodities (like , *152 BOS on #065.b4; and to a total KO<-RO3 VIN on #047.b: X , -KO[-RO3] VIN).


090 = ?

The sign is not morphologically related to any AB sign, and it appears only once (#113.b2), as the second sign of the signgroup 037-090 KU-, perhaps a version of KU-RO, "total."


091 = ?

The sign is not morphologically related to any AB sign, and it appears only once (#331).


092 = RU - KN, MA/M+P

DOCS2 33 fig. 6 and CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 26 / RU/ru.

Good Linear A parallels assure the identification.
290, 057-092-061 290 (#052.b), KI-RU- 290Linear A: KI-RO ("owed")
011-092 *153 (#026.g), SI-RU GRA Linear A: SI-RU (HT 55a.2), SI-RU-TE "libation formula"); cf. HT 90.2-3: SI-RU-MA-RI-TA2 GRA (HT 90.2-3)
X X 036-092 (common), SA2-RULinear A: SA-RU (HT 86a.2, b.2; HT 94b.3; HT 95a.3, b.1; HT 124a.4-5); cf. SA-RA2 (see Notes to Signgroups, App. III)
092-019 (#294.b3), RU-SALinear A: RU-SA (HT 96a.3); cf. TU-RU-SA (KO Za 1.b-c)


093 = TI - CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 37 / TI/ti. It appears only once, however (#317).


094 = E?

CHIC p. 19 table identifies the sign as similar in shape to AB 38 / E/e, which it formally resembles. The sign occurs in four signgroups (#241, #251, #328, PE Hh 02.A-B), for three of which Linear A provides plausible parallels.


095 = RA - sealstones only

The five occurrences of this sign in A-SA-SA-095 are all on sealstones (#179, #202, #203, #205, #313); it is possible that this is the sign for /RA/ on sealstones while 027 = RA3 is the sign for /RA/ on clay documents.


096 = QA - 1 time (MA/M #087)

CHIC p. 19 table identifies this sign as the possible prototype to AB 16 / QA/qa. It appears only on #087 in a 3-sign signgroup, which has a plausible Linear A parallel.


*163 = TELA2

The logogram *163 is hapax legomenon on #103. It resembles 041 but has "fringe" at both ends and a fringed line in the center running obliquely from lower left to upper right (rather than the simple line running from upper left to lower right in 041). If 041 resembles a cloth on a loom, *163 resembles a rug.


Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger (jyounger@ku.edu)