Linear A Texts
in phonetic transcription

& Commentary

Introduction

inaugural date: 30 November 2000; for latest updates, see immediately below.

For recent changes & updates, click here.


Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger (jyounger@ku.edu)


Table of Contents

Front Material

1. List of linked files
2. Fonts
3. Corpora and phonetic transcriptions
4. Conventions (bibliographical, epigraphical)
5. Basic statistics

General Information

6. My goals for establishing this website
7. What is known about Linear A
7a. Chronology
7b. Script
7c. Documents, general information
7d. Balance Ledger tablets
8. Decipherment
9. Language

Words

10. Vocabulary
10a. Transaction Signs
10b. Transaction Words
10c. Place Names
10d. Other Words
11. Ideograms/Logograms

Towards a Grammar

12. The Libation Formula
13. Grammar
13a. Nouns, Verbs
13b. Adjectives
13c. Prefixes
13d. The Suffix -TE/TI

Numbers

14. Fractions
15. Metrology

Layout

16. Word Separation
17. "Hyphenization"
18. The Continuity Principle


1. List of Linked Files

For the Linear A texts from Haghia Triada (Ayia Triada)

For other Linear A texts

Common Linear A Ideograms; GORILA's sign charts and palaeographic sign charts

For Linear A religious texts grouped separately

A Linear A Lexicon

A Linear A Reverse Lexicon

Phonetic Grids for Linear A & B

Concordance: Raison-Pope-GORILA signs (a Microsoft Word document)

Hypothetical Phonetic Grids for Cretan Hieroglyphic

Bibliography from 1980 on (with select works prior)


2. Fonts

The following fonts are available for Macintosh OS 9 (NOT OS X) (courtesy Jean-Pierre Olivier):
  • Phaistos Disc - "Phaistos 12.hqx", "Phaistos 48.hqx"
  • Cretan Hieroglyphic - "Mobile 18.hqx" (for clay Hieroglyphic texts), "Malia-thick 18.hqx" (for Hieroglyphic sealstones)
  • Linear A - "Knossos 18.hqx"
  • Linear B - "Mycenae 12.hqx", "Mycenae 18.hqx"
  • Linear B Ideograms "ID. B 18.hqx"

    The following fonts are now available (7 Sep 08) for Macintosh OS X (courtesy Jean-Pierre Olivier):

  • Cretan Hieroglyphic for MAC OS X
    Malia-Maigre for inscriptions
    Malia-Gros for sealstones and seal impressions

  • For Windows, David Willem Borgdorff has designed a Linear A font: "LA.ttf.hqx"

    The fonts have been stored in binhex mode; after you download them (ignore all warnings), they must be "unstuffed" (for a free "Unstuffit" program; quit all programs, install the fonts in your Macintosh/Windows Harddrive/Systems/Fonts folder, and then restart your word-processing package).


    3. Corpora and Phonetic Transcriptions

    The transcribed texts are based on the texts presented in GORILA (below) and a transnumeration and phonetic normalization finished 22 March 1994 by John G. Younger; Jean-Pierre Olivier checked this document against GORILA vols. I-V and a ms. of VI. It was then put in tabular form in January-February 1997. Since then, there have been continual updates.

    GORILA = Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier, Recueil des inscriptions en Linéaire A. Études Crétoises 21, vols. 1-5. (Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1976-1985, now out of print; but de Boccard [below] has copies for sale).
  • Volume 1: Tablettes éditées avant 1970 (EtCret 21:1; Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner 1976) ISBN X16534
  • Volume 2: Nodules, scellés et rondelles édités avant 1970 (EtCret 21:2; Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner 1976) ISBN X16435
  • Volume 3: Tablettes, nodules et rondelles édités en 1975 et 1976 (EtCret 21:3; Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner 1976) ISBN X16436
  • Volume 4: Autres documents (EtCret 21:4; Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner 1982) ISBN X16437
  • Volume 5: Addenda, corigenda, concordances, index et planches des signes (EtCret 21:4; Paris: Libraire Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, Paris 1985) ISBN X16433

    GORILA available from Diffusion de Boccard for Euros 76 per volume:
    11 rue de Médicis
    75006 Paris FRANCE
    T: (33) 1-432-60037
    F: (33) 1-435-48583
    http://www.deboccard.com/anglais/Rub/cata.htm
  • The phonetic transcriptions use Linear B values for Linear A signs assumed to be the same. Also see below, "Phonetic values of the signs."

    Words of 3 or more syllables appearing exactly the same in both Linear A and Linear B Godart 1984
    A-TI-KA (ZA Wc 2.a1-2; KN V 831.4)
    DA-I-PI-TA (ZA 8.5, 10a.4-5; KN B 799.1)
    I-JA-TE (PH Zb 4; PY Eq 146.9)
    I-TA-JA (HT 28a.6; KN Ap 769.2, Xe 537.2)
    KI-DA-RO (HT 47a.4, 117a.9, 122a.2-3?; KN E 842.3)
    PA-I-TO (HT 97a.3, 120.6; KN 59 occurrences)
    SE-TO-I-JA (PR Za 1b; KN 22 occurrences)
    SU-KI-RI-TA (PH Wa 32; KN 9 occurrences), SU-KI-RI-TE-I-JA (HT Zb 158b)
    possibly A-RA-KO (KO? Zf 2; KN 5 occurrences)

    Additional A-TI-KA (ZA Wc 2.a1-2; KN V 831.4)
    PA-RA-NE (HT 115a.4, b.1; KN Vc 7616)

    Words of 3 or more syllables in Linear A that are very similar to words in Linear B A-KA-RU (HT 2.1, 86a.1); cf. a-ka-re-u (KN B 416)
    A-RA-NA-RE (HT 1.4); cf. a-ra-na-ro (KN As 1516.11)
    A-RE-SA-NA (THE Zb 2); cf. a-re-sa-ni-e (PY An 724.2)
    A-SA-RA2 (HT 89.1); cf. a-sa-ro (KN As 40.4)
    A-SU-JA (HT 11a.3-4); cf. a-si-wi-ja (PY Fr 1206)
    A-TA-RE (ZA 8.1); cf. a-ta-ro (PY An 35.5)
    A-TI-RU (ZA 4a.3); cf. a-ti-ro (KN Dv 1272B)
    DI-DE-RU (HT 86a.3, 95a.4, b.4); cf. di-de-ro (KN Dv 1504B)
    DA-MI-NU (HT 117a.8); cf. da-mi-ni-ja (PY Aa 96, Ad 697) and da-mi-ni-jo (common on KN D-tablets and elsewhere)
    DU-PU3-RE (KO Za 1b); cf. du-pu2-ra-zo (KN Da 1173)
    KA-SA-RU (HT 10b.3); cf. ka-sa-ro (KN C 912B)
    KI-RI-TA2 (HT 114a.1, 121.1); cf. ki-ri-ta (KN G 820.1, Ld 785.1)
    KU-KU-DA-RA (HT 117a.7); cf. ku-ka-da-ro (KN Uf 836.b)
    KU-PA3-NU (HT 1, etc.); cf. ku-pa3-no (KN Df 1219B)
    KU-PA3-NA-TU (HT 47a.1-2, 119.3); cf. ku-pa-nu-we-to (KN As 1517.8)
    KU-RU-KU (HT 87.4); cf. ku-ru-ka (KN Vc 5510)
    MA-SI-DU (HT 43.1-2); cf. ma-si-dwo (KN Fh 360B) MI+JA+RU (several); cf. mi-ja-ro (KN Ln 1568.1)
    PA-JA-RE (several); cf. pa-ja-ro (KN As 1519.6)
    QA-QA-RU (several); cf. qa-qa-ro (KN As 604.3)
    QA-RA2-WA (HT 86a.3); cf. qa-ra2-wo (KN Ce 50.1a)
    SA-MA-RO (HT 88.5-6); cf. sa-ma-ra (PY Jn 829.15, etc., ]sa-ma-ru[, KN V 655.1, and sa-ma-ri-jo, KN Da 1147, Np 857)
    SI-KI-RA (HT 8a.4); cf. si-ki-ro (KN U 8210.1)
    SI-MI-TA (HT 96a.2-3); cf. si-mi-te-u (KN Am 827.1)
    TA-NA-TI (HT 7a.4, 10b.4, 98a.2); cf. ]ta-na-ti (KN Uf <311>.2)
    TE-JA-RE (HT 117a.5); cf. te-ja-ro (KN V 479 v.3, X 5525.1, 8661B)
    WA-DU-NA (HT 6b.1-2, 85b.4-5); cf. wa-du-na (KN V 503.3)
    WI-RA-RE-MI-TE (ZA 9.6); cf. we-ru-ma-ta (PY Ub 1318.4)


    4. Conventions (bibliographical, epigraphical)

    Bibliography from 1980 on (with select works prior)

    Bibliographical Abbreviation
    • CMS = Corpus der minoischen und mykenischen Siegel (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag).


    Epigraphical Conventions

    SIGN[ = text broken off at left
    ]SIGN = text broken off at right
    SIGN = the reading of SIGN is doubtful
    • (i.e., • flanked by spaces) = word-divider
    -• or •- or -•- = unidentified sign
    [[ SIGN ]] = erased but legible sign
    <TEXT> = TEXT once extant, now lost and supplied


    Types of Supports (the objects that receive writing)
    tablets (page, bars, lames)
    Wa = nodules/noduli
    Wb = sealings
    Wc = roundels
    Za = stone vessels
    Zb = clay vessels
    Zc = inked inscriptions
    Zd = graffiti
    Ze = architecture
    Zf = metal objects
    Zg = stone objects


    5. Basic Statistics

    There are some 1427 Linear A documents with a total occurrence of 7362-7396 signs (Schoep 2002, 38); if there are 4002 characters (font Times, pitch 12, no spaces) on a 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper with 1 inch margins, all extant Linear A would take up 1.84 pages.

    Contrast Hieroglyphic: some 360 documents [including seals and the 23 documents from Petras] with fewer than a total occurrence of 1000 signs.

    Contrast Linear B: some 4600+ documents with 57,398 signs -- 14.34 pages of text.

    About 2,788 people seem to be recorded in the Linear A tablets (Schoep 2002, 185).


    6. My Goals for Establishing This Website

    I have three major goals for this website.

    • 1. to make available the results of GORILA to the wider public (with permission of Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier). This website is not a substitute for GORILA since it "normalizes" and phonetically transcribes GORILA's layouts and drawings of the Linear A documents.

    • 2. to work publicly with colleagues on the Minoan administrative process: how commodities were assessed, collected, and distributed.

    • 3. to tease, from an understanding of the administrative process, the administrative vocabulary (e.g., the terms for "total" and for "deficit") and its grammar and syntax.
    I am NOT interested in producing a decipherment of Linear A -- please see "Decipherments," below.


    7. What Is Known about Linear A

    7a. Chronology

    Hieroglyphic is probably the first script to appear; seals dating from primarily MM I contexts (MM IA or IB) include CMS II.1 nos. 391, 393, and 394 from Archanes Phournoi (the signs on these seals are often referred to as comprising "the Arkhanes script"; Schoep 2002, 23: early form of Linear A?).

    Hieroglyphic documents come from four main deposits in Crete: Malia, Quartier Mu (MM II late); Petras (MM IIB); Malia Palace (MM [IIB-]III); and the Knossos Hieroglyphic Deposit (an assemblage of material from the end of the Long Corridor in the West Wing and surrounding area). Since the sealstones that impressed the KN sealings were all hard stone seals, the impressed sealings at least should date to MM IIB-III. No Hieroglyphic document can be dated later than MM III.

    Linear A documents appear either contemporary with or soon after the first appearance of Hieroglyphic writing. The earliest document may be ARKH Zc 8, a painted larnax rim which the excavators first dated to an EM II-MM IA context (1975) but later called it "Old Palace period" (1997; i.e., MM IB at the earliest). The first sign looks Hieroglyphic, like the bull head #012 ; the other two signs are definitely Linear A: TA-JE. If the inscription is indeed a mix of scripts, it may well be very early.

    The other earliest documents date to MM IIA (KN 40 from Knossos, South House, carrying a badly legible fraction) or MM II (ARKH Zf 9; PH 6-19, 22, 24-28, 30 [Haghia Photini], Wb 33-36, Wc 37-41, 43, 44, 46, 52, 55, Wg 45, and Wy 42; and SAM Wa 1).

    Hieroglyphic was therefore probably invented first, in MM IA and appears first on seals from Archanes and Ayia Triada; Linear A follows immediately in MM IB, or soon after, in MM II, and appears first on documents primarily from Phaistos. From then until MM III, Hieroglyphic and Linear A were being written contemporaneously, with Hieroglyphic documents at Malia Quartier Mu (MM II) and Malia Palace (MM III, and Knossos Palace?) and with Linear A documents at Phaistos (MM II), Malia Palace (MM III), and Knossos Palace (MM IIIB). From this evidence, it is possible that Hieroglyphic originated at in central Crete first (or possibly at Malia), in MM IA and Linear A originated at Phaistos slightly later in MM II.

    Although the two scripts share several signs, which may have similar phonetic values, it is not clear why two such different scripts should have developed more or less contemporaneously unless they represent two different administrative practices and/or two different languages or dialects (Schoep 2002, 22-23).

    A few Linear A inscriptions come from Final Palatial contexts. Three occur on objects that probably were made earlier but were found in later contexts: ARM sealstone, KH 94 and Wc 2117 & 2118 (all from fills), and the MM III pithos KN Zb 35 (LM II context). Three others, however, were probably all written after the LM Ib destructions: the LM II pithoid jar KN Zb 40, the inscribed block KN Ze 16 on the Kephala tholos (LM II?), and the painted inscription on PO Zg 1, a terracotta statuette from Poros (LM III A:1-2 by style and context). It is therefore possible that Linear A survived the LM Ib destructions, though barely .

    In the Neopalatial period, and probably as early as LM IA, Linear A was developing in such a way as to produce Cypro-Minoan and, eventually, Linear B. The earliest CM document, the "Grand" tablet from Enkomi comes from a 16th century context. The earliest Linear B documents seem to be those from the Room of the Chariot Tablets at Knossos (LM II or possibly LM III A1). This would be the time T.G. Palaima would identify for the creation of Linear B, when, on the Mainland, major Mycenaean centers had major administrative buildings on their heights, the larger tholoi were being constructed, and trade was expanding. According to Palaima, Linear B was created probably at a single moment, either "from above" (a directive) or "within the close confines of palatially oriented bureaucracies which then sanctioned the invention and continued to apply it to narrow record-keeping tasks" (1988: 341).

    Some Hieroglyphic signs, not Linear A signs, are the prototypes for Linear B signs (e.g., CHIC sign 40 for Linear B ro2 and 78 for Linear B do); it is therefore possible that Linear B was developing earlier than LM/LH II and incorporating more than one source.

    Other linear scripts may have similarly developed from Linear A farther east: see the inscription from Lachish (Finkelberg 1996).


    Character of the Script and Documents

    7b. The Script

    In comparison to Cretan Hieroglyphic, Linear A is fairly neat, written (almost?) always from left to right (a few examples of sinistroverse or boustrophedon writing: IO Za 9 & 11; KN Za 19; PL Zf 1; VRY Za 1)) in more or less straight rows from top to bottom of the clay document; occasionally the tablets are partially ruled. The signgroups are separated by a dot or short stroke. The longest texts are HT 93a & b, HT 117a & b.

    Linear A contains more than 90 signs in regular use and a host of logograms, many of which are ligatured with syllabograms and/or fractions, and about 80% of these do not appear in Linear B. While many of the regular signs are also found in Linear B, some signs are unique to A (e.g., A *301 and following), while some signs found in Linear B are not found in Linear A (e.g., AB 12, 14-15, 18-19, 25, 32-33, 35-36, 42-43, 48, 52, 62-64, 68, 71-72, 75, 83-85).

    There is probably much Minoan retained in Linear B. Signs AB *22 PA3 and *56 (unknown phonetic value, logogram B *107 CAPrid) were retained in Linear B for representing foreign (Minoan) sounds, and there have been attempts to identify Minoan names in Linear B (Billigmeier 1969, Firth 1993). Some Minoan words are retained in Linear B and even become Hellenized, like Linear A MA+RU becoming Linear B's logogram *145 LANA and Greek μαλλός, mallós.

    It is well-known that Linear A uses three main vowels, A, I, U; Linear B adds e- and o-series, and complex phonemes (e.g., dwo, two).

    The complex phoneme nwa, however, is attested in Linear A on SY Za 4 and may be implied in the word KU-PU3-NA-TU; compare Linear B ku-pa-nu-we-to, a man's name on KN As 1517.8 (thanks to Gretchen Leonhardt for bringing this to my attention).

    7c. The Documents

    Linear A was written on a variety of supports, unlike Linear B: stone offering tables, gold and silver hair pins, and pots (inked and inscribed). The clay documents consist of tablets, roundels, and sealings (one-hole, two-hole, and flat-based). Roundels relate to a "conveyance of a commodity, either within the central administration or between the central administration and an external party" (Schoep 2002, 122) with the roundel being the record of this transaction that stays within the central administration as the commodity moves out of the transacting bureau (see Hallager 1996a). Two-hole sealings probably dangled from commodities brought into the center, one-hole sealings apparently dangled from papyrus/parchment documents, and flat-based sealings were pressed against the twine that secured papyrus/parchment documents (see CMS II6-II8 for photographs of the imprints that survive on the underside of flat-based sealings). These papyrus/parchment documents, presumably carrying inked texts, were probably of more importance than the clay tablets and roundels that have survived.

    Most of the clay documents are page-shaped tablets, usually smaller than Linear B tablets; there are a few bars taken over from Hieroglyphic, but this shape is discontinued after MM III. While there are a few oblong tablets (e.g., from Malia), there are no palm-leaf tablets like those of Linear B.

    As Linear A was written on a variety of supports, so too we find the documents in a wide variety of settings: private houses at Khania and at Ano Zakros, decentralized bureaux (the Casa del Lebete at Haghia Triada, the Northeast House at Knossos, and Zakros Hogarth's House A), and central administrative areas (the Villa Reale at Haghia Triada and the palaces at Knossos, Malia, and Zakros). Most of the documents come from "living" archives (e.g., Zakros palace, Haghia Triada's Magazines 5-7, HT 24 recording wool and found with loomweights) or "discard" archives (Knossos Temple Repositories and West Magazines, Malia Palace). Often the discard archives are found fallen from an upper storey (e.g., Knossos West Magazines and Zakros Hogarth's House A), and some were stored in chests of wood (e.g., Khania; bronze hinges from Knossos Temple Repositories, Zakros rooms XVI, XXVIII, Tylissos House A room 5) or clay or mudbrick (Zakros House A, Khania house I, Palaikastro Building V) (Schoep 2002, 25-26).

    Almost all tablets are palimpsests (i.e., they have been written on, erased, and written on again). "The presence of palimpsests suggests that the information originally held on the tablet was discarded, perhaps because it had been copied onto another document and/or updated" (Schoep 2002 79).

    Almost all documents consist of lists, with headings, of one or two word entries, each followed by a logogram followed by a number and/or fraction. Once, possibly twice, the logogram is followed by a word and then by a number; this "constantly happens in Linear B" (Hooker 1975). On HT 88.2, the ideogram FIC (for "figs") is followed by the word KI-KI-NA, which may designate a type of fig (black vs. green) or an aspect (fresh vs. dried). On KN Za 19, the ideogram *188 or TALENT is followed by MI-NA, which may be the name of the weight, the "mina" (cf. ZA 21a.7).

    Most words seem to be names (person- , place-) (Hooker 1975); when in doubt as to whether a name is an anthroponymn or toponymn (which is almost always), I tend to write "NAME." A few words may be verbs or transaction words (see below).

    We should imagine the several stages in recording information in the Minoan bureaucracies:
    1. information on individual transactions
    2. compiling these individual transactions, say by region or person
    3. summarizing these individual transactions, say by commodity
    4. making permanent or final records
    5. discarding the preliminary documents

    The types of transactions recorded should be fairly limited:
    • inventories -- of storerooms (food, raw materials, finished products), stables, workshops, lands belonging to the administration, their goods & flocks. "Inventories form the basis of target records" (Schoep 2002, 90-91).
    • assessments -- the central administration telling outlying regions what they should produce; a kind of taxation
    • collections, contributions -- inward movement of goods and contributions to the administration (in response to assessments, taxes, levies), deliveries, sacrifices, etc.; commodities recorded as in-coming from the outlying regions, either actually arrived (KU-RO, total) or in arrears (deficits, KI-RO).
    • allocations, disbursements, distributions -- recording the outward movement of agricultural commodities, goods, animals and raw materials for various purposes (finishing, pay, rations, trade, etc.); commodities given back out to people or places as rations or payments for services rendered. Mixed commodities and combined documents (Schoep's type IB & V) with VIR and "the Aegean triad" (FIC, GRA, VIN) probably record allocations (e.g., HT 100). See PE 1, KH 7, HT 27, HT 39.

    The scribes identified at Haghia Triada did not specialize in recording certain commodities (except perhaps Hand 9 recording people, Schoep 2002, 167 n. 264, 199 n. 110); and it is not possible usually to assign documents to a single series since most documents record a variety of commodities. The texts also differ from site to site; for instance, Haghia Triada and Zakros tablets contain more lexical information but fewer logograms than do the documents from Khania. We must imagine that practices differed from site to site and/or that we have texts from the different stages of processing information.

    Packard 1974 classifies the Haghia Triada documents into 9 categories based on subject matter and format:
    A series: words followed by 1
    B series: logogram 100/102 VIR & ligatures
    C series: agricultural products
    D series: logogram 120
    E series: *550, 552, 551, *89, *21f
    Fa: HT 16, 20, 24, 38; Fb (HT 31
    G series: logograms in heading: Ga VIN, Gb other logograms
    H series: no logograms
    X series: fragments
    Packard's system is not easily applied to ZA & KH docs, which lack A, B, E, G, and F.

    Schoep 2002 classifies the documents, especially those from Haghia Triada, into 5 main categories (I have included this information with the presentation of the individual documents):
    Ia: Mixed Commodities, with heading and transaction sign (TS); these probably compile information from individual accounts
    Ib: Miscellaneous Commodities, list(s) and numbers; these probably compile information from individual accounts
    Ic: Miscellaneous Commodities, list(s) and numbers, and a word ("total," "deficit") and number at the end; these probably compile information from individual accounts

    II: Specialized, one logogram (and variants)

    III: Single Commodity, one logogram for the whole list

    IV: No logograms, always whole numbers, never fractions; therefore probably a list of personnel (such lists may also appear in the previous types of documents)

    Va: Combined commodities, a separate section of 100/102 VIR and word & number; again, always whole numbers, never fractions, and therefore mainly about personnel (and rations?: *303, figs, wine, OLE; e.g., HT 27, 89, 94, 100)
    Vb: Combined word & number and list & number sections

    It is likely that the mixed commodities documents compiles information drawn from individual accounts, the lists of personnel relate to a census or work-force, and the single commodity documents summarize compiled information.

    Many lists are preceded by a short heading of no more than 2 words (3 words on HT 96a, HT 117a), followed by a single sign (e.g., AB 04 TE, AB 28 I, A 307 =? AB 39) -- these are probably transaction indications (e.g., assessments, contributions, disbursements). There may be subheadings to sections of the document (HT 93a.3-4 and 4-5; HT 120.3-4; KH 7a.3; HT 27a.4-5). PH 6 is unusual in that it presents 5 signgroups over 4 lines with NO ideograms or fractions. Longer, non-transaction, prose-like statements are rare; most of these constitute the presumed religious inscriptions, ZA Zb 3 (5 signgroups, 1 logogram), and the hairpins (ARKH Zf 9; CR(?) Zf 1; KN Zf 31; PL Zf 1).

    In the lists, commodities are almost always listed by ideograms, single signs that stand for objects (occasionally the commodity is not mentioned, being implied somehow); logograms are often ligatured with syllabograms and/or fractions to denote aspects of the object.

    Numbers then follow. Most fall into one of several categories: fractions, which may often indicate allocations (commodities leaving the administrative center in small quantities), the number 1 (probably personnel), whole large numbers (e.g., 20, 50, possibly alluding to assessments), and large random numbers (probably referring to contributions, either actual or in deficit).


    7d. Balance Ledger Tablets

    Balance Ledger tablets are transaction documents that record what appear to be contributions and disbursements (somewhat like "income" and "expenses"). They can be recognized by the fact that they present two lists of mostly the same NAMES. Original assessments (last column) can be deduced by totaling the contribution and the disbursement.

    Here are two examples, HT 28 and HT 114.

    HT 28

    Since sides a & b carry most of the same name, it is likely that this tablet is in the form of a "Balance Ledger", with side a recording contributions and side b recording debits -- if so, then b.1: U-MI-NA-SI probably means "owes" (vel. sim.; cf. HT 117a.1-2: MA-KA-RI-TE KI-RO U-MI-NA-SI. KI-RI-SI [TY 3b.1] & KI-RI-TA2 [HT 114a.1] seem to be verbal variations on KI-RO, "debit" [vel. sim.]).
    namea: contributionb: U-MI-NA-SIassessment
    A-SI-JA-KA    
    GRA+QE 5
    JA-QIf
    OLE+U
    OLE+KI 2
    OLE+MI   L2
    OLE+TU 1
     5
    2
    L2
    1
     VINa 6 6
    SA-RA2OLE+DI 1OLE+DI 56
     NI 2NI 24
     VINa 3VINa 47
      GRA 2020
     VIR+KA VINa 6 6
    A-RU-DA-RAGRA 5 5
     *304 2 2
     OLE+DI 3 3
    I-TA-JAOLE+DI 10 10
    PU-RA2 NI 66
    WI-DI-NA OLE+DI 33
      VINa 3 E3 E

    Another arrangement, by commodity, reveals the ratios:

    commoditynamecontributionU-MI-NA-SItotal
    VINaVIR+KA
    SA-RA2
    WI-DI-NA
    JA-QIf
    6
    3
     
    4
    3 E
    6
    22 E
    OLE+DISA-RA2
    A-RU-DA-RA
    I-TA-JA
    WI-DI-NA
    1
    3
    10
    5
     
     
    3
    22
    GRAA-SI-JA-KA
    A-RU-DA-RA
    SA-RA2
    5
    5
     
     
    20
    30
    NISA-RA2
    PU-RA2
    22
    6
    10
    OLE+?JA-QIf3 J L2 3 J L2
    *304A-RU-DA-RA2 2

    The ratios seem to be as follows:

    VINa+OLE = 44E
    GRA+NI+OLE?+*304 = 45 J L2
    or: VINa+OLE =? GRA+whatever


    HT 114 can also be rearranged as a Balance Ledger -- here, KI-RI-TA2 is a likely variant on KI-RO (cf. KI-RI-SI on TY 3b.1), perhaps a 3rd plural of a verbal form. If so, then side a lists what is owed, and side b lists what has been contributed (SA)

    namea: KI-RI-TA2 (owed)b: SA (paid?)assessment
    SA-RA2a: GRA 10 10
     a: VINa 1b: SA (paid?) VINa 910
     a: OLE 7
       NI 1
       BOSm 3
     11 oil, figs, cattle

    Again, the ratios appear to be similar in proportion to those in HT 28:

    GRA = 10, VINa = 10, OLE+NI+BOSm = 11
    or: VINa:GRA:OLE+BOSm = 1:1


    8. Decipherment

    My own aim in producing these webfiles has NOT been to decipher Linear A.

    Most scholars have tried one of two approaches: the "acrophonic" principle to identify the phonetic values of the signs, and using vocabulary to identify a language -- I don't believe either works very well.

    The acrophonic process
    Decipherments based on reading the signs as pictograms, then identifying what the object was called in a language, and then identifying the phonetic value of the sign as the initial sound or first phoneme of the object's name (the acrophonic principle) -- this process does not seem to work for Linear A for two major reasons.
    1, the identifying term for the "pictogram" cannot be proved in advance of deciphering the script.

    2, it can be demonstrated that, for several Hieroglyphic & Linear A signs, the acrophonic principle probably did not operate. Hieroglyphic *012 , a bull-head, becomes Linear AB 23 MU, Hieroglyphic *018 , a dog head, becomes AB 60 RA, and Hieroglyphic *060 , a cat face, becomes AB 80 MA. My guess is that the phonetic value of these signs reflect the sound the animal makes, "moo," "arf," and "miaow" (in English). And there are other examples where the sound of the object seemingly relates to its phonetic value (e.g., Hiero *057 , a key sistrum, becomes AB 67 KI [the clinking sound of a metal rattle]).

    This is not to say that the acrophonic principle is never appropriate to Linear A. Valério 2007 demonstrates that the word for master/lord is DU-PU2-RE and that the first sign DU is based in form on the Egyptian sr , "official/dignitary/courtier."

    Using vocabulary to identify a language
    See my critique of the "decipherments" by Hubert La Marle and Kjell Aartun.

    For me, vocabulary does not necessarily identify a language (English, for instance, has a large German, French and Classical Greek and Latin vocabulary); grammar would identify a specific language more securely. Thus, I am not immediately swayed by the process of identifying words in another language as Linear A words (e.g., KU-NI-SU in Linear A as the Semitic term for emmer wheat) -- this is not to say that I don't find such correspondences impressive and interesting. Compare Nakassis and Pluta 2003: 335: "A number of scholars have attempted to decipher Linear A, identifying it with known languages such as Semitic, Luwian, and even Greek. These studies begin by attempting to etymologize a small number of individual words, largely ignoring overall context."

    My own method has been strictly internal, to examine the texts as accounting documents, and to use the numbers to identify transaction terms and patterns in vocabulary, and then to pay special attention to vocabulary variations, especially in prefixes and suffixes, in order to tease out a grammar.

    Whatever language Linear A turns out to be (Semitic, Indo-Hittite, Greek, or Martian), will be fine with me; I have no set predisposition.


    9. Language

    Linear A has not yet been demonstrably linked to any known language family.

    "The languages which have been used for comparison are of two families: Indo-European, especially an Anatolian language such as Luwian (Palmer, Meriggi [and Ed Brown of UNC-CH]); Semitic (Gordon, Best, and others)... First no inflexional forms such as characterize Indo-European or Semitic languages can be clearly demonstrated, hence the identifications depend largely on vocabulary, which is notoriously easily borrowed. Secondly, the Semitic comparisons are mainly with triconsonantal roots -- yet if the vowels are ignored we are leaving out half the information presented by the script, and thus much decreasing the chances of success. Thirdly, if the languge of Linear A does not belong to a well-known family, then the chances of identifiying it are virtually nil. This is not to say that Linear A remains undecipherable; as more documents are found and published, we shall understand more of it. But I doubt very much if speculation at this stage can help; I feel strongly that is likely to belong to an unfamiliar type." (Chadwick 1975: 147)

    If Crete was deliberately colonized in developed Neolithic, probably from SW Anatolia (Broodbank & Strasser 1991), it would seem logical to surmise that the Minoan language could be related to one of the Indo-Hittite dialects, most probably Luvian.

    It has been recognized that Linear A contains a high number of affixes (prefixes & suffixes; Duhoux 1978), suggesting Linear A is "agglutinative rather than conjugating." There is a high number of prefixes (59% of the words Duhoux singled out; Linear B has 12%), playing an important role "in expressing gender, case or derivation" or some other kind of syntactic relation (Schoep 2002, 45-46).

    Classical inscriptions from East Crete (Dreros, Praisos, Itanos) have been labeled Eteo-Cretan (Duhoux 1982); these may reflect an indigenous language.


    Phonetic values of the signs (Godart 1984, amplifying Olivier's previous list)

    certain: DA, I, JA, KI, PA, PI, RO, RI, SE, SU, TA, O

    possible: TE, A, KO, RA

    possible recent identifications
    *34=MINA or some other MvNv combination.
    Sign *034 has been suggested to represent MNA (or, if a disyllabic value can be accepted, MINA), based on its resemblance to the crescent moon (Pope and Raison 1978, 28; Packard 1974, 107; Furumark 1956, 24). And while this idea has not received wide-spread agreement, it may be correct. Consider the following:
    U-*034-SI (HT 15.1, 140.1, 2) =? U-MI-NA-SI (HT 28b.1-2, 117a.1-2)
    PI-*34-TE (HT 116a.4) =? ]PI-MI-NA-TE (AP Za 2.2)
    SI-DU-*034-KU-MI (HT 110a.1) =? *SI-DU-MI-NA-KU-MI (no parallels)
    *034-TI-RI (KN Zc 6)=? *MI-NA-TI-RI (no parallels)
    *034-JU-TE-MI[ (ZA 6a.1-2)=? *MI-NA-JU-TE-MI[ (no parallels).

    Also see the note to *325, below.

    *22=mPI2 (see Duhoux 1984, Janda 1986, Melena 1987; Tosa 2010)

    *29=mPU2 (see Duhoux 1984, Janda 1986, Melena 1987; Tosa 2010)

    *56=PA3 or mPA3 (see SMID 1981, p. 61; Duhoux 1984, Janda 1986, Melena 1987; Tosa 2010)

    *65=JU (see SMID 1981, p. 61)

    *66=TA2=TNA (Pope-Raison 1978: 28).

    Cf. KI-RE-*66 (HT 85b.1-2, HT 129.1) and KI-RE-TA-NA (HT 2.3, HT 108.1, HT 120.4-5); and *66-TI-TE (PK 1.3) and TA-NA-TI (HT 7a.4, 10b.4, 98a.2)

    *304 = KA2; *306 = A2 (shape resembles AB 43, known from MY Zf 2); *318 = DI2

    compare
    HT Wc 3017HT 94
    *304+PAa.1: KA-PA
    DI-*306a.4: *318-*306
    QA-KU-REb.2: KE-KI-RU

    *304 = KA 
    JA-*304[ (PH 14a)cf. A-SI-JA-KA (HT 28a.1, 28b.1-2)
    ]*304+PA-DA-*047-KU[ 
    *304+PA (lots)KA-PA (HT 6a.1; HT 8b.4; HT 94a.1; HT 102.1; HT 140.5)
    *304+PA+*316+D3 (HT Wa <1021bis>) 
    *304+PA-KU-PA (HT We 1020a) 

    *306 = A 
    ]*306-JA-PI (ARKH 3b.1)WA-JA-PI-[ ] (HT 9b.1)
    ]*306-KI-TA2 (HT 122b.2)A-*301-KI-TA-A (TY Zb 4)
    ]*306-QE-DU[ (KH 21.3) 
    ]-*306-TI-KA-A-RE[ (HT 4.1)A-TI-KA (ZA Wc.a1-2)
    *306-TU-JA (HT 115b.3)cf. JA-TO-JA[ (ZA 4a.2-3)

    *314 = PU3

    Valério independently; Owens 1999 & Facchetti 1999a, 132 identify the value as BU, a variant of PU2; so as not to start a new consonant "row," I conform the sign to PU3

    *325 = MA-NA?

    If prefix I-/J- indicates a dative, causing A-SA-SA-RA to change to JA-SA-SA-RA-ME (IO Za 6, 12, 16; PL Zf 1; PS Za 2; TL Za 1b) or to JA-SA-SA-RA-MA-NA (KN Za 10), then we might interpret RI-QE-TI-A-SA-SA-RA-*325 (PO Zg 1) as RI-QE-T plus I-A-SA-SA-RA-*325, identifying *325 as either ME or MANA, probably the latter, if U-*325-ZA (HT 10a.2, 3; HT 85a.3) stands for *U-MI-NA-ZA (a variant on U-MI-NA-SI?; see note to *34, above). Also cf. A-*325-ZA.

    *348 (hapax legomenon) = SI2
    compare *348 *303KL2 with SI *303 KL2 (KH 11.3-4, 6 respectively)

    *363 (and *364?) = SO2
    so Valério; I agree (the sign derives from Hiero *043, from which B12 so derives); see Hiero #039 and parallel Linear A tablet HT 9.


    10. Vocabulary

    10a. Transaction Signs

    Single signs indicate types of transactions; they are preceded and followed by dots (except on HT 44b.1, 63.1, 133.1). In Linear B, transaction signs can mean different things in different contexts (e.g., DA in PY En 609 or in Aa, Ab sets). Transaction Signs "provided information about the kind (or purpose) of transaction and that the format of a tablet indicated the use to which a commodity was put by the administration (its administrative status), its provenance or its destination. Thus, the lists of mixed commodities are clearly drawn up to a different administrative purpose than the single commodity tablets: the former record a single origin or destination for many commodities whereas the latter record several origins or destinations for single commodities" (Schoep 2002, 141). The low frequency of most transaction signs implies they are context-bound, which would be appropriate for contributions; those occurring with KI-RO (e.g., HT 123) probably are also dealing with "incoming commodities or assessments of incoming commodities" (Schoep 2002, 142).

    DI, a single sign with people (cf. HT 85b); on HT 20 it occurs with the fraction J (Schoep 2002, 139); since two of the words on HT 20 end in -JU, if that were like Linear B, meaning "son of," perhaps the fraction would appropriate for a child's ration.

    KA, apparently associated with people or a group of people (title, collective, occupation); cf. HT 11b.2, 45a.2 (Schoep 2002, 137). On HT 28a.4 VIR+KA VINa 6 comes just after VINa 3; the note there suggests that VIR 6 might be responsible for the VINa 3, perhaps 2 VIR per half-unit of VINa or 2 VIR per pithos of VINa (they could slip two poles through handles and carry each pithos like a litter). On HT 88 VIR+KA 20 or 26 are listed agains FIC KI-KI-NA 7; perhaps the figs are rations for the VIR+KA, if 7 units of figs, that would be 1:~3. On HT 140 KA totalling at least 8 and possibly as many as 14 are associated with an amount of OLE+U that totals at least 6J, again perhaps rations (OLE+U : KA = ~2:1).

    KI usually occurs with people (HT 118, pigs).
  • KI-RA: HT 49a.8
  • KI-RO? (Raison & Pope in Duhoux 1978: 47-48); cf. HT 118; and mentioned on HT 49a.7&8
  • KU can either stand for KU-RO (e.g., HT 40.4) or designate a group of people (title, collective, occupation) (Schoep 2002, 136-7).

    PA should be an abbreviation for a term modifying people; it may be in opposition to *188 -- HT 8 has, on the recto, PA, verso *188; PA fraction may refer to *618 (*302+KI). HT 10.3 has two separate entries, one for PA and another for *301 (Schoep 2002, 135, 137, 138).

    PA3 appears on HT 9b, listing payments (Killen 1969 equates this with Linear B a-pu-do-si, received. HT 9a has TE, probably expected assessments or contributions) (Schoep 2002, 138-9). The same meaning can be deduced for PA3 on HT 34.6.

    RE refers to people (HT 27, VIR in the heading; HT 32.4); it precedes the logogram *305 (Schoep 2002, 137)

    SA (HT 114b.1) or SI (HT 30.1) = paid?

    TA may designate a group of people (title, collective, occupation) (Schoep 2002, 136-7).

    TE/TI, "from/of" (Valério 2007), associated with agricultural products and people, usually in large quantities. So, assessments (for future incoming commodities) or inventories of commodities arrived (Schoep 2002, 100, 168 "more likely to represent a kind of contribution to the administration (e.g., taxes, levies, payments of loans, tributes etc.) rather than distributions"). This meaning seems supported at HT, with large quantities of wine (collections, rather than allocations) associated with TE; the total amount of TE GRA, however, is small, 1/10th the amount registered with SA-RA2. This is common, appearing on 21 HT texts in headings or sub-headings [HT 67, 96] and relating to agricultural commodities: AB 30 (FIC, occasionally), AB 120 (GRA), AB 122, AB 131 (VIN), A 302 (OLE). TE and SA-RA2 are mutually exclusive (Schoep 2002, 98). See further examples under The Suffix -TE/TI.

    TU =? redistribution: HT 49a.8

    WI =? "not included" vel sim; HT 102.4

    *86 (for the form , cf. Linear B PY Mn 111.1,7). On HT 140, 86 is probably a single sign, applying to the following sign-group associated with VIR, always with whole numbers (cf. HT 27a.2, 94a.1, b.5). It may designate a group of people (title, collective, occupation); cf. HT 11b.2, 45a.2 (Schoep 2002, 136-7).

    *188 is positioned like a transaction sign but it can also occur as a single sign. It only appears in initial or final position of two-sign sign groups, so it probably is not a syllabogram; it may be in opposition to PA (see HT 8 recto PA, verso *188). *188+KU may be a logogram on HT 16.3, 20.5 (Schoep 2002, 135-6).

    *301 usually refers to people, but on HT 110b.5 it is accompanied by a fraction and may refer to the figs above (Schoep 2002, 138).

    *305 may designate a group of people (title, collective, occupation); cf. HT 11b.2, 45a.2 (Schoep 2002, 136-7).

    *307 is positioned like a transaction sign but it can also occur as a single sign. It is associated with people, also when doubled (*638). From its appearance on HT 27 and HT 89, it can refer to allocations (Schoep 2002, 142).

    *318 is associated with people

    *326 is associated with agricultural commodities, e.g., figs (HT 91, this is the only mixed commodities tablet this sign appears on)

    *346 is associated with people

    *406VAS is associated with people

    *516, I+[?] -- used with figs (HT 96, ZA 1); it may also designate a group of people (title, collective, occupation (Schoep 2002, 136-7). It might be related to prefix I-, meaning "to", implying an allocation (see section 13c, Prefixes, below); see, for example HT 96, where one section is headed TE and the next *516 (also see DA-I under Transaction Words).

    *523, TI+A may designate a group of people (title, collective, occupation) (Schoep 2002, 136-7).

    *545, KI+MU may designate a group of people (title, collective, occupation) (Schoep 2002, 136-7).

    *638 --- see *307

    *656 (*341+PI) is associated with people


    10b. Transaction Words

    A-DU = "assessment"?: HT 95.b1 (and elsewhere)

    Heading A-DU (probably derived from Hieroglyphic A-DE; see Notes to Hieroglyphic Signgroups, section X)

    From the examples below, Linear A's A-DU usually functions alone and as a primary heading to a tablet; it may be modified by transaction signs (e.g., TE) and/or logograms (e.g., VIR, GRA, OLE).

    As a prefix, it usually is followed by -RE-ZA (which may be a word by itself [HT 88.1-2]); here again it is usually a primary heading, but in one abbreviated form it is simply an item in a list (PK 1.2). The abbreviation DU-RE-ZA occurs at least once (and supplemented with an additional suffix -SE), and as an item in a list. A-DU also occurs as prefix to another word, KU-MI-NA, which exists by itself (KU-MI-NA-QE [HT 54a.2 & HT Wc 3014a-b]) as well as on the same document as A-DU-KU-MI-NA, again as another item in the list, prefixed simply by A- two lines above (ZA 10a.1-2).

    As part of longer words, A-DU may be prefixed by WI-N, possibly as a variation on the common prefix I-NA- (e.g., I-NA-TA-I-*79-DI-SI-KA [IO Za 5], I-NA-I-DA-[ [IO Za 11], I-NA-JA-PA-QA [PK Za 11d], I-NA-WA [PH 6.1]).

    A-DU as primary heading
    A-DUHT 88.1; HT 86a.4; HT 95b.1; HT 99a.1; KH 23.1
    A-DU *638 VIRHT 85a.1
    A-DU • TE GRA+DAHT 133.1-2
    TE • A-DU • GRAHT 92.1-2
    A-DA-KI-SI-KA • A-RA-U-DAKH 5.1-2
    A-DU[KH 23.1

    A-DU as heading
    A-TI-KA A-DU KOZA Wc 2
    A-DA OLE+UTY 3a.5

    A-DU-RE-ZA
    A-DU-RE[primary heading: KH 4.1
    A-DU-[•]-ZA *303primary heading: KH 11.1
    A-DU-ZAitem in list: PK 1.2
    JA-DU-RA-TIprimary heading: KN 1b.1-2
    A-DU-[••] OLE+KIheading: TY 3a.3
    DU-RE-ZA-SEitem in list (ZA 10a.5 & b.1-2)
    ]DU-RE-ZA-SE-[?heading: ZA *20.1-2
    ]DU-RE-ZA item in list (KH 20.4)
    RE-ZAitem in list (HT 88.1-2)
    ]ZA-*321 OLE+KIprimary heading: TY 3a.1

    A-DU as part of other words
    A-DU-KU-MI-NAitem in list (ZA 10a.3-4)
    DA-DU-MA-TA • GRAprimary heading: HT 95
    WI-NA-DUitem in list: KH 5.3
    ]KO-A-DU-WA OLE+[item in list: TY 3a.6

    Two documents, HT 95 & HT 86, give further clues for understanding the meaning of A-DU; each records two lists, probably of place names. In the heading on the recto, DA-DU-MA-TA • GRA (HT 95a.1) is juxtaposed to the secondary heading on the verso, A-DU (HT 95b.1); HT 86 juxtaposes the heading A-KA-RU on the recto with A-DU on the verso (cf. KA-RU [HT 97a.1]). See the discussion of these two documents below: the words A-DU, A-KA-RU, and DA-DU-MA-TA, KA-RU seem to be transaction terms; I suggest something like "assessable", "payable" and "assessments", "payments". Uchitel, A., and M. Finkelberg, "Some Possible Identifications in the Headings of the Linear A Archives," SMEA 36 (1995) 29-36, suggest "let them do" for A-DU.

     HT 95 (GORILA I: 154-155)   HT 86 (GORILA I: 134-35) 
    a.1DA-DU-MA-TA • GRA  a.1A-KA-RU 
    a.2DA-ME10    
    a.2MI-NU-TE10    
    a.3SA-RU20 a.2SA-RU20
    a.3-4KU-NI-SU10 a.1-2KU-NI-SU GRA+K+L220
    a.4DI-DE-RU10 a.3DI-DE-RU20
    a.4-5QE-RA2-U7 a.3QA-RA2-WA10
           
    b.1A-DU  a.4A-DU 
    b.1SA-RU10    
    b.2[•]     
    b.2DA-ME10 a.4DA-ME GRA+B20
    b.2-3MI-NU-TE10 a.5MI-NU-TE20
    b.3-4KU-NI-SU10    
    b.4DI-DE-RU10    
    b.4-5QE-RA2-U10    

    HT 86 assigns 20 commodities to names (places?) in two lists headed by A-KA-RU and by A-DU.

    On HT 95 these same names occur in each of two lists, headed by DA-DU-MA-TA and again by A-DU; in each list, however, most of the names have 10 commodities -- except: SA-RU has 20 in the DA-DU-MA-TA list and an additional 10 in the A-DU list, and QA-RA2-WA, for which 10 commodities are recorded on HT 86, is recorded (and spelled apparently the more common way, QE-RA2-U [cf. HT 1.1-2-]), with 7 in the DA-DU-MA-TA list and 10 in the A-DU list. For this odd number 7, cf. QE-RA2-U 197 (HT 1.1-2).

    By allocating the names to separate lists, HT 86 looks like it is dividing the names into some kind of mutually distinct groups (e.g., by geography); HT 95, however, by recording all names in both lists, appears to be recording transactions (e.g., payment and non-payment or income and reallocation).

    If DA-DU-MA-TA and A-DU are related (e.g., "contributions" and "not paid"), then compare A-KA-RU with A-KA-RU 20 (HT 2.1, the total of the next two numbers), and with KA-RO[ (HT 71.1) and KA-RO (HT 97.1) -- on this last document, KA-RO 82 may record a total of the numbers recorded against place names: *327 33, KA-NU-TI 25, PA-I-TO 6, DI 4, NA-TI 4, MA-DI 5, TA-TI 2, DE-[•] 3.

    DA-DU-MA-TA GRA = "grain contributions"?, if DA-DU-MA-TA is related to A-DU q.v.: HT 95.a1

    DA-I = "total"?: HT 12.6 (Schoep 2002, 162); cf. DA-I-PI-TA, ZA 8.5. If DA- (as in DA-DU-MA-TA) indicates in some way a completed action (like a perfect of A-DU), could DA-I be a completed transaction *516 I+[?] (q.v. under Ideograms/Logograms)?

    E-*82 = "assessment" or "paid"; ZA 4

    KA-I-RO = "balance": ZA 8.6

    KA-PA occurs only in the HT tablets; it seems to be a transaction term or heading on HT 6 (FIC coming TE "from" a list of names), HT 102 heading a list of GRA from five names, HT 140.5 where the word seems to conclude the list. Ruth Palmer 2004 suggested that ka-pa in Linear B meant processed "fruits" (cf. LinB ka-po). But KA-PA also seems to be a name (personal or place) on HT 6a.4-5 ("KA-PA-QE" in order to distinguish it from the heading), HT 8b.4 listing PA in small amounts (therefore "to"?) and a list of names, HT 94a.1 where contingents of KA-PA VIR are distinguished from rations listed against SA-RA2, HT 105.1 where VIR is being contributed from KA-PA and SA-RA2 in almost equal numbers. Schoep 2002, 166, thinks that KA-PA might mean "summary account" vel sim., or a place name.

    KI-RA = "balance"?, a transaction term on HT 103.5 (Schoep 1994-5, 71, n. 60); cf. ZA 8.1

    KI-RO = "owed", "deficit" (Younger 2003)
  • "balance": HT 1
  • "itemized payments/debts": HT 88.4, 93b.1, 94b.1
  • "owed" (Hooker 1975; Duhoux 1989, 79): HT 30.4, 123a; HT 118; cf. HT 49: a.1-7 totals 10; if KI<-RO> 1, then 9, which is what a.8 records (5+4), with the KI<-RO> 1 repeated
  • KI-RO is also mentioned: HT 88.4, 124

  • verbal forms of KI-RO; also see below, "Transaction Words"
  • KI-RI-SI -- 3rd singular (TY 3b.1)
  • KI-RI-TA2 -- 3rd plural (HT 114a.1)
  • KU-PA, possibly a transaction term on ZA 11a.5 (Schoep 1994-5, 67, n. 47); cf. HT 110.2

    KU-RA looks like a totaling word on ZA 20.4

    KU-RO = "total" (Schoep 2002, 160-62; Younger 2003)
  • secure: HT 9.a & b, 11.b, 13, 25.b2-4, 85.a, 88.4-6, 89.4, 94.a3 & b1-4, 104, 117.a1-6, HT 118 (with 5 having been omitted), 122?, 123.a, 127.b4-7; ZA 1?, 15, 17; cf. HT 116.
  • with restorations: HT 27a.1-7, 100, 102
  • rounded off: HT 119
  • also mentioned: HT 39.5, 40.3, 46a.2
    Perhaps the word is related to Semitic kl. "whole". (see Hooker 1975) or the Greek 'kolon', with the often Linear A 'u' substituting for Linear B 'o', and thus meaning 'sum'). Since KU-RO does not appear in Linear B, it could be a Minoan word (but see comment on PO-TO-KU-RO)
  • PO-TO-KU-RO = "grand total" (Palmer 1995; Schoep 2002, 163): HT 122b.6 (grand total of personnel; off by one?), 131.4 (mixed commodities, so it must total some common denominator, personnel?). If KU-RO is Minoan, is PO-TO- also, or is it derived from IE, meaning "power" (vel sim.), thus PO-TO-KU-RO = "power total"?

    U-MI-NA-SI = "owed"?: HT 28b.1


    10c. Place Names

    A few place names can be identified (with more or less [??] plausibility) with actual places:
    DA-U-*49 =? Linear B da-wo, Ayia Triada (Palaima 1994)
    DI-KI-TE (several occurrences) - Dikte (Mt Dikte in east Crete, from the numerous mentions of DI-KI-TE in the PK documents; less likely to be Mt Ioukhtas [Owens 1993b])
    I-DA (several occurrences) - Mt Ida
    I-TI-NI-SA (ZA 15a.3) - Itanos (north of Palaikastro)
    KU-NI-SU = likely a place-name (not "grain"; Hooker 1975; Duhoux 1989, 79; Schoep 2002, 148-50); "Knossos" is very doubtful.
    KU-TA[ (HT 115b) might be Linear B ku-ta-to
    KU-*79-NI (HT 13, HT 85a), perhaps Linear B ku-do-ni-ja (Bennet 1990, 193-211); KA-U-*79-NI cannot be a spelling variant (Schoep 2002, 156)
    PA-I-TO (HT 97, HT 120) - Phaistos
    SE-TO-I-JA (PR Za 1.b) - Archanes? (Owens 1994b), Ioukhtas?
    SU-KI-RI-TA (PH Wa 32) - Sybrita (or Sygrita, in the Amari valley, modern Thronos)
    TU-RI-SA (KO Za 1b-c) - Tylissos

    SA-RA2 (only in the HT tablets) - Since SA-RA2 never appears on a document with transaction term TE, Schoep (2002, 98, 165-168) thinks it might be a transaction term. Other than that, however, SA-RA2 seems to operate like any other NAME, presumably a toponymn since it occurs so frequently. Some 12 tablets (HT 18, 28a+b, 30, 90, 94, 99, 100, 101, 114, 121, 125, 130) associate SA-RA2 with a set of 4 commodities (*303, FIC, VINa, GRA, OLE), usually in that order when they occur together. But SA-RA2 is occasionally listed against other commodities: BOSm (HT 114a.3-4), VIR+KA HT 28a.4); HT 30, 32, 33, 34 seem to form a separate set of SA-RA2 documents, listing QA+[?]+PU, QA2+[?]+RE, MI+JA+RU, MI+JA+KA, E+KA, *305, *341+PI, PA3+QE. The quantities are often modest (although HT 105 lists SA-RA2 VIR 125, and HT 102 lists SA-RA2 GRA 976), perhaps reflecting disbursements to SA-RA2 (perhaps that is implied on HT 93 which lists ASE I GRA+PA 26, then SA-RA2 20, then QA-QA-RU I GRA+PA 5, as if disbursements to ASE and QA-QA-RU must be spelled out ("I") but they are automatically presumed with SA-RA2.


    10d. Other Words

    TA-JA =? "five" (Olivier 1992)

    DU-PU2-RE = lord/master (of a place, e.g., DI-KI-TE-TE-DU-PU2-RE, Lord of Dikte; Valério 2007)

    KI-KI-NA (HT 88.2) = "figs" (fresh or dried, green or black)

    PU-KO = "bronze"?; see the commentary to HT 31


    11. Ideograms/Logograms

    Linear A Ideograms: a folder giving the common, identified ideograms and their signs, and copies of GORILA's sign charts and palaeographic sign charts

    The administrative documents with logograms seem chiefly to concern people ( A101/102 VIR people = B 100; A 352 might be the equivalent of B *102 MUL woman), agricultural products (AB 30 NI figs, AB 120 GRA grain [probably barley, Palmer 1989, 1992], AB 122 OLIV olives, AB 131 VIN wine, A 302 = B *130 OLE olive oil), and less frequently livestock (AB 21 OVIS sheep, AB 22 CAP goats, AB 23 BOS cattle, AB 85 SUS pigs), cloth (A 54 [occurring as a logogram 5 times] =? B *159) and vessels (A 400VAS-A 418VAS). Other ideograms are rare (A 308-A 371), most occurring only 1 or 2 times. Linear A does not have logograms for arms and armor (except AB 191 GAL helmet), spices (AB 123 = *123 AROM is only a phoneme in A [Hiero *157 occurs on seals #291 and CMS II 3.23 as a logogram]), or metals (unless A 327 [; HT 97a, HT 119] = B *140 AES bronze/copper).

    *01 (DA), logogram on HT Wa 1031
    Ligature
    • DA+RE+SE (*502)
    • DA+RO (*501)
    • DA+*301 (*503)

    *02 (RO), on HT Wa 1032-1121, Wb 2001, 2002
    Ligature
    • RO+RO[ (*504)

    *03 (PA), common

    *04 (TE), common
    Ligature
    • TE+RO[ (*505)

    *07 (DI), common
    Ligature
    • DI+QE (*506)

    *08 (A), common

    *09 (S), HT Wc 3004b, 3005b

    *13 (ME), not a logogram by itself
    Ligature
    • ME+VINa (*507), honey wine?

    *16 (QA2), not a logogram by itself
    Ligatures, *508-*511 occur with agricultural products (with *303, wine, oil, etc.) in whole numbers and fractions
    • QA2+[?]+PU (*510)
    • QA2+[?]+PU+RE (*511)
    • QA2+[?]+RE (*508)
    • QA2+[?]+RE+PU (*509)

    *17 ZA, HT 123b.1, ZA 1a.2

    *20 ZO, KH 57.2

    *21 (QI)/OVIS = probably sheep (Palmer 1995); also as a syllabogram (OLE+OVISf on TY 3). HT 38: OVIS no sex indicated = castrated males (wethers), producing finer wool and in greater quantities (Halstead 1990-1, 343-65). Schoep 2002, 122, cites low numbers of sheep (ZA 22: 100, otherwise no more than 30), but we can add now 53 sheep cited on the Thera tablets. Still, this is not much evidence for large scale textile production.

    Ligature
    • QI+SI (*512) or OVIS+SI, cf. Linear B SUS SI (for si-a2-ro, fattened or to be fattened)

    *22/CAP (B *107) = probably goats (Palmer 1995); also as a syllabogram (Duhoux 1984: 61 n. 38 suggests a phonetic value of MI?). HT 20.3: CAPm F, probably an animal product because of the fraction.

    Ligature
    • CAPm+KU (*513)

    *23 (MU)/BOS = cattle. *23 appears by itself (HT, ZA, KH 5.6) and may be "ox" or possibly "cow," although the sign lacks the split stem that Linear B 109b has. The masculine variant ( *23m, with stem crossed twice) appears frequently (GO Wc 1b; HT 30.4, 5, 114a.3, 121.3; KH 87.3, Wc 2069) (Palmer 1995)

    *24 (NE), HT Zd 156?
    Ligature
    • NE[ ]KI (*514)

    *26 (RU), HT 12a.2, b.2

    *27 (RE), PH 15a; ARKH 4a.2; HT 27a.2, b.2, 5, 6, 32.4, 41a.3
    Ligature
    • RE+SE (*515)

    *28 (I), HT 43.2, 115a.1, b.3, Wa 1150-1174; *28b: HT 62[+]73.3; ZA 4a.5-6, 5b.1, 15a.4-5, 6b.1
    Ligature
    • I+[?] (*516), "to"?
    • I-GRA+PA (*517)
    • I-OLIV (*518)
    • I-*301 (*519)
    • I+*301 (*520)

    *30 (NI)/FIC = figs (common) (Palmer 1995); one of "the Aegean triad" (along with *120 GRA, *122 OLIV; Schoep 2002, 98). As in Linear B, olives and figs hardly ever appear together (exc. HT 44, 91, 131). Incoming quantities are probably from palatially-owned orchards (HT 123 lists other commodities, so presumably these olives are coming from other sources); out-going quantities are usually small, even fractional (Schoep 2002, 96).
    HT 88.2 presents the only certain occasion when the word for a logogram is spelled out (the word appearing after the logogram; another possible occurrence would be *188 [Talent?] MI-NA on KN Za 19): FIC • KI-KI-NA 7. This is odd, since NI may be the acrophonic symbol for "nikuleon," an old word (Minoan?) attested by Hesychius for "figs" (Neumann 1962). Perhaps KI-KI-NA distinguishes fresh from dried or green from black figs, meaning one or the other, depending upon which would be otherwise automatically assumed.

    *31, SA, perhaps a logogram for *SA-SA-ME?, PH 16b.1, HT 97b (cf. Linear B sa-sa-ma)

    Ligature
    • SA+MU+KU (*521) or SA+BOS+KU
    • SA-VINa (*522), sesame wine?

    *37 (TI), common
    Ligature
    • TI+A (*523) or A+TI?
    • TI+*412VAS (*524)

    *38, E, both a syllabogram and a common logogram (at HT, KN). E by itself does not occur with *526, and they occur in different amounts, E in whole numbers. JGY: as a logogram, E often appears with whole numbers (e.g., 3, 5) amongst a list of commodities in fractional amounts (e.g., HT 60, 91). KN 1 lists E 240 and E 105.

    Ligature
    • E+[ ] (*525)
    • E+KA (*526), in fractions (Schoep 2002, 133)

    *39 (PI), logogram only in ligature
    Ligature
    • *341+PI (*646)

    *40 (WI), HT 102.4
    Ligature
    • WI+ZE[ (*527)

    *41 (SI), common
    Ligature
    • SI-DI (*528)
    • SI+ME (*530)
    • SI+ME-KI (*531)
    • SI+SE (*529)
    • SI+TA2 (*532)
    • SI-CYP (*533)

    *44 (KE), only in ligature
    Ligature
    • *406VAS+KE (*656)

    *47 (?), MA 1a,b

    *50 (PU), HT 34.7

    *51 (DU), ZA 10b.7
    Ligature
    • DU+[ ] (*534)

    *54 (WA)/TELA = cloth, HT 16.2, 20.4, Wc 3019. Without ligatures, TELA is measured in fractions (HT 16, 20, Wc 3019?), perhaps by weight (cf. HT 16, 20: *188+*81).

    Ligatures
    • TELA+KU (*535), counted in units, associated with *188
    • TELA+TE, Tel Haror only (cf. Linear B TELA+TE = tepa cloth, a Minoan word; Oren 1996, 105)
    • TELA+SE, Thera only
    • TELA+*312 (*536), also TELA+KU?, counted in units, associated with *188 (Bennett 1975: 61, & Melena 1975: 108-10 both give TELA+ZO?; Younger 2005 identifies A312 as KU [cf. Hieroglyphic website]
    *56 (PA3), HT 9b.1, 132.2, 34.6
    Ligature
    • PA3+QE (*537)

    *57 (JA), PH 14a, 16b.1; HT Zd 156?
    Ligature
    • JA+KA (*529)
    • JA+RU (*538)

    *58 (SU), KH 11.2, 22.1
    Ligature
    • SU+MI (*540)

    *59 (TA), MA 4a; ZA 10b.6; HT 94a.2, Zd 156(?), WA 1267-78

    *60 (RA), logogram only in ligature
    Ligature
    • RA+KA (*541)

    *61, O, HT 113.3, Wa 1279-81; KH common

    *65, JU, HT 97a.4, ZA 11a.4; Linear B FAR?, perhaps a logogram, although it may occur as such only once, on ZA 11a.4 followed by a fraction

    Ligature
    • JU+*317+QE (*542)

    *66 (TA2), HT 11a.5
    Ligature
    • TA2+CYP (*543)

    *67 (KI) = KI-RO, common
    Ligature
    • KI+MA+RU (*546)= KI+LANA
    • KI+MU (*545) or KI+BOS
    • KI+[ ] (*544)

    *69 (TU), HT 49a.8; KH 91.3; ZA 12b.1
    Ligature
    • ]TU+RO (*547), cf. Linear B TURO2, "cheese"

    *73 (MI), logogram only in ligature
    Ligatures (*550 and *552 are found in different contexts than *551; *550 is measured in fractions, while *551 is measured in whole units [Schoep 2002, 130])

    • ]MI+JA (*548 , MI+JA on PH 3b.1 (3a concerns wool)
    • MI+JA+KA (*552)
    • MI+JA+I (*551)
    • MI+JA+RU (*550)
    • MI+JA+[ ] (*549)
    • MI+*301 (*553)

    *74 (ZE), HT 16.4, Wa 1282-132; KH Wa 1005-1010

    *77 (KA), HT 85b.3, 140.4, 11b, Wa 1322-1470, Wc <3018>a
    Ligature
    • KA+A (*554) or A+KA?

    *78 (QE), logogram only in ligature
    Ligature
    • QE+GRA+PA (*555)

    *79 (ZU), HT 66.1

    *80 MA, perhaps a logogram on HT 146.3, 110b.2, 5 (cf. Linear B ma-ra-tu-wo)

    Ligature
    • MA-RU (*80+*26 ), wool
    • ]MA-RU (*558)
    • MA+RU (*559 )
    • MA+RU+ME (*561)
    • MA+RU+RU (*562)

    Linear A thus has no separate logogram for LANA (unlike in Hieroglyphic *84 and Linear B *145 ). The ligatures appear on a few documents (HT 12.4-5, HT 24a.1-5, KH 43.1, PH 3a.3) and the word is actually spelled out, MA-RU on HT 117a.3 and ]MA-RU-A on TY Zg 1; MA-RU does not seem to appear in Hieroglyphic. Linear B LANA *145 pictorializes the Linear A ligature, perhaps being influenced by the pictorial Hieroglyphic sign *084 . The classical Greek word "μαλλός, mallós," wool, may thus be a loan-word from Linear A (and Hieroglyphic?). At PH, LANA is measured in small quantities, possibly disbursements; at HT, the quantities are large, possibly collections (Schoep 2002, 132).

    *81 KU, common (cf. Linear B ku-mi-no, a Semitic word, Chadwick 1975, 119). It occurs in whole numbers on HT 127b.4, but in fractions on HT 45b.4, 5

    Ligature
    • KU+[ ] (*564)

    *85 AU/SUS, HT 38.2, 118.1; PH(?) 31a.3, b.4; pigs (Palmer 1995);
    Ligature
    • 85+SI+RE, SUS+SI+RE or SI+AU+RE, the Linear A predecessor of Linear B si-a2-ro, fattened?

    *86 (?), HT 11b.2, 27a.2, 94a.1, b.5
    Ligature
    • *86+'*188' (*565)
    • *86+*188 (*566)

    *87 TWE, only on HT 126b.2, 3

    *100/*102/VIR, common = person (Palmer 1995); also a syllabogram (SI-VIR-[•] on HT 72.1, heading; VIR-I on HT 11a.4 & HT 93a.5-6 as a name in a list; VIR-*329 on HT 128b.1 as a name in a list).

    There doesn't seem to be a common logogram for woman (MUL), but cf. *352 (KH 99; KH Wc 2100).

    Ligatured (connoting aspects, like occupation, age, gender, status? Schoep 2002, 113)
    • VIR+KA (*568), women? Godart 1984, 125 (cf. HT 28)
    • VIR+*307 (*569)
    • VIR+*313a (*570)
    • VIR+*313b (*571)
    • VIR+*313c (*572)
    • VIR+[?] (*567)

    On HT 85a, the VIR are sorted into sets of 6. HT 105.2 has VIR 234 or 39 sets. Compare HT 88.1-2 RE-ZA VIR 6 and .4-6 6; HT 89.3: VIR+313 13, TA-RA 5 = 18 (3 sets); HT 93a.5-6: VIR-I 6; HT 94a.2 VIR+313b 18; HT 97 *638 VIR+KA, the numbers total 192 (32 sets) - also PA-I-TO contributes 1 set; HT 127, VIR+313 24 (4 sets); HT 128b.1 VIR-329 GRA+KU 6; KH 7a.4-5: KU-*-KO-E VIR+313b 18 (3 sets); KH 26.a VIR 60 (10 sets); KH Wc 2004, VIR 6; KH Wc 2029, VIR+KA 6; KH Wc 2030, VIR+KA 6; KH Wc 2106, VIR KA 6; PE 1.3-4, VIR 72 (12 sets); TY 2.3-4, VIR 84 (14 sets).

    Contrast HT 94 a.1: VIR 62, 94b.5 KU-RO 5; HT 100, whose total VIR is 97 (1 more than 16 sets); HT 102, VIR GRA+PA 33 (11 half-sets?); HT 105.3, SA-RA2 VIR 235 (one more than 39 sets); HT 119: VIR 68 (not associated with a name), 11 one-third sets; KH 7a.2-3, 4, VIR+313, 10 & 4 respectively; KH 25, VIR 140 & VIR 10; KH Wc 2031, VIR+KA 4; KH Wc 2032, VIR+KA 9; KH Wc 2100, VIR-352-JA 9; PE 1.2, VIR 53 (restored, one less than 9 sets); PH 8, VIR 11 (one less than 2 sets).

    *118, syllabogram and logogram, HT 12.4, 24b.1,2,2, 38.3; KN 2.2 (TALENT?)

    *120/GRA = barley (Palmer 1995); one of "the Aegean triad" (along with *30 FIC, *122 OLIV; Schoep 2002, 98). GRA usually begins a list: GRA, OLE, *304, VIN, then either OLIV or FIC. Since GRA rarely occcurs with *303 (cf. HT 99a), they may have been handled differently (cf. HT 110a with *303, b with GRA). The largest amounts of recorded GRA: HT 15.1, 684 units, HT 40.1, 207; HT 102.1, SA-RA2 GRA 976.

    Ligatured (presumably commenting on aspects of the grain, e.g., raw, milled; destination as food or fodder; Schoep 2002, 104)
    • GRA+BOSm (*576)
    • GRA+DA (*573)
    • GRA+KU (*579
    • GRA+PA (*574), in very small quantities; so, "processed"? Compare PE 1 which allocates GRA+PA in half units to personnel (Schoep 2002, 106, 108)
    • GRA+PA3 (*577)
    • GRA+QE (*578)
    • GRA+QIf (*575)

    When modified by fractions, it may have functioned as a land measure, as it does in Linear B (Schoep 2002, 154): *580 (+B), *581 (+E), *582 (+F), *583 (+H), *584 (+KL2), *585 (+L2), *586 (+L3L3).

    *122/OLIV = olives (Palmer 1995); one of "the Aegean triad" (along with *30 FIC, *120 GRA; Schoep 2002, 98); the total amount of olives in the HT texts are 93J units (about 8,928 liters). Olives are associated with the transaction sigh TE, but never with SA-RA2. As in Linear B, olives and figs hardly ever appear together (exc. HT 44, 91, 131).

    Ligatured
    • *587 (+TU; cf. *621 OLE+TU, the only other occurrence of a sign ligatured +TU)

    *123/AROM; on Linear A clay documents this sign is a syllabogram of unknown value (A-*123-TE, DU-*123-A, TA-I-*123, TE-*123, and ]A-ME-*123, all names in lists); on Hieroglyphic seals, it is a commodity

    *131/VIN = wine (Palmer 1995). Wine can be inventories in large quantities (e.g., HT 13, 103J units, or 3,744 liters; ZA 4, 104 units). Also a syllabogram (only in PU-VINa on HT 14.1, HT 123a.3-4); the sign is similar to the Egyptian sign for wine.

    VIN comes in 3 variations (Schoep 2002, 100)
    VINa or plain wine, flavored (as below, in ligatures)
    VINb wine of lesser quality (in Linear B): ARKH 2.1-2, 3a.2, 5.3; KH 5.2 (VINb+WI); ZA 10b.1-2
    VINc vinegar (in Linear B, for perfume making): KH 18.3, 4; KH 61.2; KH 85.2; perhaps PH 7b.3

    Modified
    • ME VINa (*507, honey flavored?), ZA 15a.3
    • VINa • GRA (*597), HT 27b.6
    • VINa • SI (*590), HT 27b.2

    Ligatured
    • VINa+KA (*596), ZA 6b.2
    • VINa+RA (*594), ZA 6b.2; ZA 15b.3
    • VINa+RA (*595, variant of the preceding), KE Zb 5
    • VINa+SA (*589), HT 131b.2; cf. SA VINa (*522, sesame flavored?), HT 114b.1; ZA 15a.1
    • VINa+SU (*593), ZA 5a.1
    • VINa+TE (*588), KN Zb 34
    • VINa+WA (*591), HT 27b.5
    • VINa+WA (*592, variant of the preceding), HT 27b.1, 5

    • VINb+WI (*598), KH 5.2

    *164, only at KH: textile?
    • *164a, KH Wc 2042-4
    • *164b, KH Wc 2040
    • *164c, KH Wc 2041
    • *164d, KH Wc 2036-9, 2045, 2111

    *171, logogram on ZA 6a with agricultural commodities (perhaps also on THE Zb 5); in Linear B, it occurs with livestock (fodder? TH nodules)

    *180, PH? 31; MA 4, 6b,d, Wc 7: hide (Schoep 2002, 131, 133). On MA 4a, *180+SA contrasts with plain *180; on MA 6, the quantities are large (6a: 941, 6b 620).

    Ligatured
    • HIDE+[?] (*599)
    • HIDE+SA+B (*600)
    • HIDE+SA+L (*601)
    • HIDE+B (*602)
    • HIDE+L (*603)

    *188, meaning unknown, common.

    Ligatured
    • *188+KU (*604)

    *191/GAL, KH Wc 2028 = helmet (= Linear B *191; Palaima 1988: 325) on KH Wc 2028

    *301, common, meaning unknown.

    Ligatured Schoep 2002, 113)
    • *301+MI (*605)
    • *301+*311 (*606)
    • *301+*351 (*607)

    *302, common, olive oil (Palmer 1995), mostly in whole units; cf. TY 3 which lists olives and oil together (cf. SY Za 2).
    Types of OLE in Linear B
    • a-re-pa, aleiphar, unguent
    • PA pa-ko-we, sage-scented
    • PO po-ni-ki-jo, dyed red
    • WE we-ja-re-pe, good for anointing
    • SI ?
    • O origanon, oregano-scented

    Ligatures of OLE in Linear A
    • OLE+A (*609) = A-RE-PA? (Schoep 2002, 117 n. 97)
    • OLE+DI (*608), always appearing with OLE+MI (*622)
    • OLE+E (*613)
    • OLE+KI (*617), perhaps OLE KI-RO (owing)
    • OLE+KI (*618, variant of the preceding)
    • OLE+KI+U (*619)
    • OLE+KI+ME (*620)
    • OLE+MI (*622), always appearing with OLE+DI (*608), in whole units and small fractions
    • OLE+NE (*612), in small fractions
    • OLE+QE+DI (*623)
    • OLE+QIf (*611)
    • OLE+RA (*616)
    • OLE+RI (*614), in small amounts
    • OLE+TA (*615), in small fractions
    • OLE+TU (*621), cf. OLIV+TU (*587, the only other occurrence of a sign ligatured +TU
    • OLE+U (*610), almost always listed first and in whole units

    *303, common, a grain (Palmer 1995). It acts like Linear B *121 (wheat; Schoep 2002, 112). This commodity appears on miscellaneous tablets, usually in whole numbers (esp. 3 and 6; Schoep 2002, 101). Since GRA rarely occcurs with *303 (cf. HT 99a), they may have been handled differently (cf. HT 110a with *303, b with GRA).

    Ligatured, with fractions
    • *303+D (*624)
    • *303+D+*304+PA (*625)
    • *303+E (*626)
    • *303+K (*627)

    *304, common, agricultural product, accompanying GRA on HT 92, 116 OLE and olives, GRA, VIN in large whole numbers on ZA 6 (Melena 1983, 116: sexual marker for OLIV & *303), but always found in a fixed position between OLE & OLIV. Schoep 2002, 124, suggests a spice like Linear B kuparo or coriander.

    Ligatured
    • *304+PA (*629), not found with plain *304
    • *304+PA+*303+D (*630)
    • *304+PA+*316+D (*631)
    • *304+[ ] (*628)
    • *304+[ ]+*303 (*632)
    • *304+[ ]+*303+[ ] (*633)

    *305, common at HT, something to do with personnel: HT 63, with two individual entries; HT 100, with groups of VIR. It also appears in signgroups, apparently as a syllabogram

    *306, common at KH, meaning unknown. Schoep 2002, 125, suggests BOSf (it looks somewhat similar to Linear B *109b; it occurs with BOSm on KH 87; cf KH 6).

    Ligatured
    • *306+MI (*634)
    • *306+VIR+*307 (*635)
    • *306+*303+E (*636)

    *307, HT 27a.2, 32.1, 89.1, 127b.4, meaning unknown.

    Ligatured
    • *307+*301[ (*637)
    • *307+*387 (*638)

    *308, ARKH 7.3; HT 23a.1, 32.1, 35.2, 123a,b; KH 12.1, 85.1; in a word: 23-308, HG 26b.4, agricultural commodity or measured in the same way, in proportion to OLIV, always in fractional quantities, except on HT 123 (25H representing contributions?); "repeated combination of the same commodities on [miscellaneous tablets] and their consistently small quantities" suggest disbursements, not contributions (Schoep 2002, 126).

    *309, only TY 2 in three variations *309a , *309b , *309c

    *312 KU, ARKH 3a; HT 49a.6; KH 8.4 (cf. Younger 2005; also discussed in the Hieroglyphic website; for *536 (TELA+*312) Bennett 1975: 61, & Melena 1975: 108-10 both give TELA+ZO?). Younger 2005 demonstrates that Hiero sign *084 , which resembles an animal (sheep?) head, corresponds to 3 subunits of *051 , which looks like a small dagger. Linear A *312 also looks like a small dagger and appears as an adjunct to Linear A *54 TELA (HT 38.3: TELA+*312; cf. TELA+KU on HT 38.3 (same line); and KU-TA[ on HT 115b.4 with *312+TA on HT 10b.2).

    *313 ligatured with VIR in three variations *313a ( HT 89.3, 100.2), *313b ( HT 94a.2; KH 7a), *313c ( HT 127b.5)

    *316, agricultural commodity on KH 91.2; PH 1a.1,2, meaning unknown.

    Ligatured
    • *316+TO+VINa (*639)
    • *316+KI (*640)

    *317, ARKH 3a.3,5; HT 96a.3, meaning unknown.

    Ligatured
    • *317+KU+*334 (*641)

    *318, HT 45a.3, b,3, meaning unknown.

    Ligatured
    • *318+[ ] (*642)

    *319, HT 132.1, Zd 1555, 156(bis), 157

    *322, KH Wc 2026, 2027, 2098; cf. Linear B *158 (unidentified) on KH Wc 2026, 2027

    *323, HT 96a.3,4

    *326, HT 35.1, 91.1, 128a.1

    *327 = B *140 AES?, HT 97a.1, 119.1 (Palaima 1988: 326), on HT 97a.1-2, HT 119.1 where it is allotted to people. It may have had a phonetic value, since it occurs in *327-JU on HT 119.4

    *330, meaning unknown, only in ligature.

    Ligatured
    • *330+DA (*643)
    • *330+SA (*644)

    *332, HT 97b, 107.3, agricultural product

    *334, KH 6.6, 7a.1, meaning unknown, only at KH where it occurs first on documents and is followed by whole numbers; thus, individuals (people, livestock; Schoep 2002, 126)

    *336, KH 14.2, 82.4 = dog (based on the shape; Schoep 2002, 126-7)

    *337, only in ligature, chariot frame (cf. Linear B *242), on KH Wc 2056, 2057.

    Ligatured
    • *337+*188 (*645)

    *338, KH Wc 2067, 2068 = boots?

    *339, PH 12a, 15a

    *341, only in ligature, meaning unknown.

    Ligatured
    • *341+*188 (*646)

    *343, HT 93a.7, meaning unknown

    *344, HT 96a.4, meaning unknown

    *346, HT 122b.1, meaning unknown

    *347, KH 6.3, meaning unknown

    *348, only in ligature, meaning unknown.

    Ligature
    • *303+*348 (*647)

    *351, only in ligature, meaning unknown

    Ligature
    • *351+*351 (*607)

    *352 = woman MUL?, only in VIR-*352-JA, KH Wc 2100

    *353, PH 9a

    *354, PH 10

    *355, PH 10

    *356, PH 13b

    *357, PH 15b

    *358, PH 16a.2

    *359, PH 17a.1

    *360, PH 17b

    *362, ZA 10b.1: WA-*362 or TELA-*362

    *365, HT Wa 1849

    *366, HT Wa 1850

    *367, HT Wa 1851

    *368, HT Wa 1852

    *369, HT Wa 1853

    *370, HT Wa 1854

    *371, KH Wa 1018

    *400-418 = vessels

    • *400, handleless cup
    • *401 two-handled cup
      Ligatures
      • *401+[ ] (*649)
      • *401+A (vowel) (*650)
      • *401+RU (*651)
      • *401+RO (*652)
      • *401+*304 (*653)
    • *402, straight-sided, handleless cup
    • *403, chalice
    • *404, cup with one handle
      Ligature
      • *402+A (vowel) (*654)
    • *405, two-handled bucket
      Ligature
      • *405+Ω (*655)
    • *406, lidded bucket
      Ligature
      • *406+KE (*656)
    • *407, lekane or basin
      Ligature
      • *414+A (vowel) (*657)
    • *408, tripod with two horizontal loop handles
    • *409, handleless tripod
    • *410, tripod with two vertical loop handles
    • *411, tripod with two horizontal strap handles
    • *412, ewer
      Ligature
      • *412+E (fraction) (*658)
    • *413, ovoid jug (funnel?)
      Ligature
      • *413+SU (*660)
    • *414 squat jug
      Ligatures
      • *414+[ ] (*661)
      • *414+F (*662)
    • *415, pithoid jar
    • *416, pithos
    • *417, wicker basket (like those the girls use in the Xeste 3 fresco for collecting crocus stamens)
      Ligature
      • *416+L2 (*663)
    • *418, bull head rhyton
      Ligature
      • *418++L2 (*664)

    Several vessel logograms have fractions written inside (see MA 10); these may refer to the capacities of the vessels or to agricultural products, and their measurements, since they occur in mixed commodity tablets (cf. Linear B *123 AROM which looks like a container but actually refers to the contents, or to MU-container and sa-pi-de boxes on PY Vn 19, MY 105; Schoep 2002, 127-8). On KN K 700 and in the Gg tablets, the numbers refer to the contents, not the numbers of the vessels (Schoep 2002, 128). The KH roundels record quite a few vessels, according to the number of seal impressions: *408 tripod, 9; *409 tripod, 27; *411 tripod, 64; and *417 wicker baseket, 2.


    12. The Libation Formula

    The Libation Formula appears in part on various inscribed objects; the words, however, follow a strict sequence, which most inscribed objects adhere to but may leave out certain words (especially the three last ones) or may substitute variations (especially on the first word); the third word is always different from object to object.

    word 1word 2word 3word 4word 5word 6word 7word 8
    T/A-TA-I-301-etc.toponymnperson's name? J/A-SA-SA-RA U-NA-KA-NA-SI I-PI-NA-MA SI-RU-TE I-NA-JA-PA-QA

    From this sequence, I deduce
  • if J/A-SA-SA-RA is a divinity, as often assumed, A-TA-I-301 (etc.) may be an invocation; it has many variations (A-TA-I-301-WA-JA, A-TA-I-301-WA-E; TA-NA-I-301-TI, TA-NA-I-301-U-TI-NU, TA-NA-SU-TE[ ]-KE, TA-NA-RA-TE-U-TI-NU)
  • word 2 is apparently a place-name: DI-KI-TE [undoubtedly Mt Dikte], I-DA [perhaps an Ida], SE-TO-I-JA [Owens 1993: Arkhanes, Mt Ioukhtas], TU-RI-SA [JGY: Tylissos?], JA-TI
  • word 3, always different, could be the name of the dedicant (on PK Za 11, there are two "dedicants" PI-TE-RI and A-KO-A-NE; word 5 thus changes from U-NA-RU-KA-NA-SI [always with a single word in 3rd place] to U-NA-RU-KA-NA-TI as if to reflect the shift to the plural; cf. A-KA-NU-ZA-TI in KN Zc 7, with 2 names in 2nd place)
  • word 5 should then be a verb ("dedicates," vel sim.)
  • word 6 has only one variation, on PK Za 10 and 11: I-PI-NA-MI-NA -- since on PK 10 it follows ]SI, presumably the usual ending for U-NA-RU-KA-NA-SI, the change from I-PI-NA-MA to I-PI-NA-MI-NA is not due to the change from singular to plural verb; instead, the ending may resemble the alternative ending for JA-SA-SA-RA-ME, JA-SA-SA-RA-MA-NA on KN Za 10 or JA-SA-RA-A-NA-NE on KN Zc 7.
  • word 7: the -TE ending may be the same as the suffix -TE that means "of/from"

    If the above inferences are correct, the Libation Formula would then translate to something like this:

    Oh!, at Place, PersonName to Asasara dedicates a dedication of/from SI-RU, I-NA-JA-PA-QA

  • 13. Grammar

    13a. Nouns, Verbs
    The Libation Formula (summarized above) presents a somewhat clear dedicatory statement in a more or less strict word order in which it is possible to detect placenames (word 2: e.g., Setoia, Ida, Dikte), a single word (word 3: always different), and several other words, including JA-SA-SA-RA (word 4), U-NA-RU-KA-NA-SI (word 5), and I-PI-NA-MA (word 6).


    Document PK 11, however, presents three changes in the Libation Formula:

    1. instead of a single word in position 3 (the personal name), it gives two, apparently two personal names (two dedicants?)

    2. word 5 changes from U-NA-RU-KA-NA-SI to U-NA-RU-KA-NA-TI, and

    3. word 5 changes from I-PI-NA-MA to I-PI-NA-MI-NE.

    To explain these changes, I hypothesize:

    1. since word 3 in the Libation Formula is always hapax legomenon, it is likely to be a personal name (of the dedicant?). On PK 11, the two words, instead of one, would then be the names of two dedicants.

    2. If U-NA-RU-KA-NA-SI were a verb in the 3rd person singular, then U-NA-RU-KA-NA-TI would be a 3rd person plural, corresponding to the plural subject, meaning something like "dedicate."
    a variation of the Libation Formula occurs on KN Zc 7: A-KA-NU-ZA-TI • DU-RA-RE • A-ZA-RA • JA-SA-RA-A-NA-NE • WI-PI-[•]. Note the ending -TI for the first word, a variation on U-NA-KA-NA-SI/TI, followed by two "names" before JA-SA-SA-RA

    3. Similarly, I-PI-NA-MI-NE might also be a plural, perhaps a plural noun, something like "dedications."

    Two transaction terms have similar endings and might also be verbs: KI-RI-SI/KI-RI-TA2 (perhaps the verbal KI-RO, "is/are lacking"), and U-MI-NA-SI ("owed"? by context on HT 28b.1).

    13b. Adjectives
    From the place name SU-KI-RI-TA, there derives a clear adjective: SU-KI-RI-TE-I-JA (HT Zb 158b), appearing on a pot that would thus be labeled "Sybritan" (cf. the similar adjective WA [for wa-na-ka-te-ro] and names in the genitive on stirrup jars inscribed in Linear B).

    From this clear example of an adjective, we can identify others:
    ]PU2-RE-JA (PK Za 16) from ]PU2-RA2 (ZA a.6)
    KU-PA3-RI-JA (HT 24a.1) from KU-PA-RI (PE 1.1-2)
    PA-SA-RI-JA (HT 24a.4) perhaps related to PA-SE-JA (HT 93a.8); compare I-PA-SA-JA (KH 10.3).

    13c. Prefixes
    A few words appear both in root form and with I- or J- prefixes (I+consonant, J+vowel). Duhoux 1997 identified these prefixes as meaning "to/at".

    I-DA-MA-TE (AR Zf 1, Zf 2), "to" DA-MA-TE (KY Za 2)
    I-ZU-RI-NI-TA (PH 6.2) related to ZU-RI-NI-MA (KN Zb 52) and perhaps A-RI-NI-TA (HT 25a.3; ZA 8.2-3)
    I-PA-SA-JA (KH 10.3), "to" *PA-SA-JA; cf. PA-SE-JA (HT Wc 3001, 3002) and the adjective PA-SA-RI-JA (HT 24a.4)
    JA-SA-SA-RA (common), "to" A-SA-SA-RA (PO Zg 1)

    There are other suffixes whose meaning is still obscure.

    13d. The Suffix -TE/TI
    Valério 2007 demonstrated that the suffix -TE means "from/of." There is a variant, -TI.
    The prefix occurs in two forms, with or without the prefix J/A-.
    with the prefix J/A-, suffix -TE or -TI
    A-DI-KI-TE-TE-DU-PU2-RE (PK Za 11), (PK Za 11), (PK Za 8.a, Za 15) = "master, lord" (DU-PU2-RE) "of/from Dikte."
    A-TU-RI-SI-TI (KN Zb 5), "from" TU-RI-SA (KO Za 1)

    without the prefix J/A- (on two interrelated documents, Hooker 1975)
    DA-KU-SE-NE-TI (HT 104.1-2), "from" DA-KU-SE-NE (HT 103.4)
    I-DU-TI (HT 104.2-3), "from" a hypothetical *I-DU (Ida?)
    PA-DA-SU-TI (HT 104.3-4), "from" a hypothetical *PA-DA-SU
    RI-RU-MA-TI (PH(?) 31), sheep and pigs "from" RI-RU-MA (HT 118.4, recording pigs, SUS I+[?]). Of this pair, Schoep 2002, 172, remarks: "It would be interesting to know whether the suffix TI indicates a direction."


    14. Fractions

    See Hallager 1996: 29; Pope 1960.

    Linear A's fractional notation has received much attention. One aspect that remains puzzling is that there is no separate sequence for volumes/capacities and wet or dry weight. We thus have no way of knowing what the fractions refer to -- the Minoans must have switched references depending on the commodities being measured.

    Bennett 1999 notes the "aliquot" system of Linear A fractions (i.e., 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, etc.); that Egyptian Hieroglyphic 1/2 and 1/4 are the same in Hieratic, but the rest of the fractions differ in the two scripts; that Egyptian fractions are also aliquot with six signs for 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64 plus a monogram of 1/2+1/4 for 3/4 (the values of Linear A's fractions seem to be almost identical); and that Egyptian Hieroglyphic 1/2 is very like Linear A 'J', and 1/4 is roughly like Linear A 'E'.

    Bennett proposed 1/2 = *707/J -- correct
    1/3 = *706/H -- wrong; should be 1/6
    1/4 = *704/E -- correct
    1/6 = *717/DD -- wrong: the double mina
    1/8 = *705/F -- correct

    3/8 = *721/EF -- correct
    5/8 = *735/JF -- correct
    2/3 = *703/D -- wrong; the single mina, perhaps 1/5
    3/4 =*732/JE -- correct
    5/6 = *736/JH --wrong; should be 2/3


    Fractions in combination, in probable order of descending value
    JJ (PH 9b)
    JA (HT 120.3)
    JE (lots; EJ [HT 123a.3-4; ZA 8.4])
    JEB (HT 27a.8)
    JB (HT 129.1; KH 5.4, 6.8, 17.3)
    JF (HT 51b.2)
    JK (HT 32.1)
    JH (HT 93a.3)
    JEL2 (KH 7a.5, 56.1)
    JL2 (HT 123b.4)
    EE (PH 12b.2, 13a, 13c)
    EB (KH 9.2)
    EF (HT 8b.4, 16.3, 40a.4, 123b.5, Zd 156)
    EL2 (HT 33.3)
    EL4 (KH 26.2)
    EL6 (KH 76.2)
    EYYY (PH 26)
    ABB (KH 86.2)
    BB (KE Wc 2b)
    FK (PH 1b.2)
    FL (ZA 7b.8)
    HK (HT 34.3)
    KL2 (HT 86a.2, 120.2; KH 11.2.3-4, 4.6, 16.1, 75.2)
    L2L4 (HT 33.2)
    L3L3 (HT 15.2)

    Fractions with values (if demonstrable or surmisable)
  • A (A701). In the discussion to HT 123+124, it is clear that A[ = 7/12. ABB, however, also occurs (KH 86); logically, A should be greater than B, but if it is smaller (as ABB seems to demand if B=1/3), then perhaps A is something like 1/6 (see note to HT 34.7; but see fraction H).
  • B (A702)= 1/3 (or 1/5). B occurs singly, in pairs BB (ZA 8, 6; KE Wc 2b), as a pair after A (KH 86.2), and once after E (1/4). That it occurs in pairs may imply that three B's would equal a unit, and that B = 1/3. The conical cup fragment PK Zb? with RE B supports this identification. Since EB occurs (KH 9.2) and JEB (HT 27), it would seem logical that B is less than 1/4 (J = 1/2; E = 1/4; see below); but on KH 9.2, EB occurs after K (1/16?), and it is therefore tempting to read this set of fractions retrograde (BEK); if so, then a descending sequence could be maintained (1/3, 1/4, 1/16). An analysis of KH 7, however, strongly suggests that B = 1/5, which would go well with B's appearance after E.

    If, however, X (A711) is the half-mina and W is the mina, then W would be 1/60 talent -- that might explain the formal relationship between B (if B were 1/3) and W: W would be a conjoined BB with an implied value of 1/10 x 1/6.

  • D (A703) = ?1/5 (suggested by Dr Dieter Rumple; also see Double Mina, below). HT 115a.4 writes D four times, which suggests that five D's might equal a unit. It might, however, be a weight, equivalent to the mina (see below).
  • DD is a weight, the Double Mina ( D = single mina? [see above]. The demonstration is presented in my article "Cretan Hieroglyphhic Wool Units (LANA, double mina,") Younger 2005. See below.
  • E (A704) = 1/4 (Pope 1960) occurs 52 times, the 2nd most common fraction (Hallager 1995); see HT 9.a
  • F (A705) = 1/8 (Pope 1960). On HT 8b.3-6 (list 2), the numbers total 9 + 3J + E + 2F, or 10 3/4 + 2F -- if F = 1/8, the numbers total 11. On HT 93a-b.1, the total is ]165H; the numbers total 159 4J E F[ H, or 161 3/4 F[ H, leaving a difference of 3 F, if F is 1/8, to be filled by an entry on line a.9 or b.1.
  • H (A706) = ?1/6 (see notes to HT 123+124; also see HT 6, 94, 100); by shape related to E 1/4, D 1/5, F 1/8
  • J (A 707) = 1/2 (Pope 1960), occurs 93 times, the most common fraction (Hallager 1995); see PE 1, ZA 4a.4, HT 9.b, HT 104
  • JE (A732; A707+A704; Brice 1961: 7-8, table 2) = 3/4, occurs 25 times, 3rd most common fraction (Hallager 1995)
  • K (A708) = 1/16 (Pope 1960; see the discussion to HT 155+156+157)
  • L (A709), L2 (A709-2) (but see below), L3 (A709-3), L4 (A709-4), L6 (A709-6) = values are unknown
  • L2 (A7092), The discussion to KH 7 suggests that L2 = 3/20. This could mean that L is twice this, 6/20 or 3/10; and that the other L-fractions are subfractions of L: L3 would be 1/3 L, or 6/60 or 1/10; L4 6/80 or 3/40; L6 1/20 -- L5 is not extant, but it would represent 6/100 or 3/50. The L subfractions occur in combination with other fractions: EL2 (KH 9.5, KH 13.3), KL2 (KH 11.2, KH 16.1), EL4 (KH 26.2, KH 75.2), and BL6 (KH 7a.6) and EL6 (KH 76.1).
  • W (A710) = value unknown (only at Khania: KH 12, 21.1, 60.2, 61.4, 77); the family "resemblance" between this sign and X (A711) might relate the two values (like W is 1/2X or 2X). If X is the half-mina, then W could be a full mina (1/60 talent), which might explain its appearance as two conjoined Bs (1/3 + 1/3 = 1/6 x an implied 1/10) (see below).
  • X (A711), occurs on HT 91.1 and KH 9.6 -- these occurrences do not suggest a value. The discussion to HT 123a (also HT 91.1; KH 9.6) suggests the unlikely value of 13/12. Formally, the sign looks related to 709 W; it may represent a doubling of that ("4/3" or "1 1/3"), or a double 701 A "1/6"?.

    Or it may be the Linear A equivalent of Linear B *116 N, the half mina -- if so, then W could be the full mina (see above).

  • Y (A712) = value unknown, but it appears as a set of 3 (PH 26), so perhaps 1/4 (cf. PH 9a). Formally, the sign might be related to the 1/2 series.
  • Ω (A713), occurs only once at MA (MA 10b.1), as an adjunct to A405VAS. The sign is identical to Hiero *304 Λ , which can be demonstrated to be 1/2.


    Summmary
    For four of the fractions (J, E, F, K), we can demonstrate certain values, and can suggest, with much less certainty, values for an additional five fractions. The chart below also gives Hiero fractions that are similar in shape.


    The horizontal lines below the fractions point out "family" resemblances in shape.


    15. Metrology

    Minoan dry unit equals the Mycenaean (96 liters) (Palaima 1994)

    Liquid units: The pithos ZA Zb 3 records "VIN 32," probably the volume, 32 units; if these are Mycenaean units (1 unit = ca. 28.8 liters), the volume of the pithos would have been 921.6 liters. Since the pithos stands about 170 cm high, its maximum capacity (as calculated from its profile by the computer program "Vase" by Gregory Christiana, copyright 1994) would have been slightly over 1000 liters. It is possible, therefore, that the Minoan unit of liquid measure was also the Mycenaean unit. See my article, "Calculating Vessel Volumes" published in Metron.


    Weights

    Petruso 1992: 17-20 posits a single Minoan (and Mycenaean?) talent as "a sexigesimal multiple of its mina." Major evidence for the talent includes the porphyry triangular stone weight from Knossos (just under 29 kg; Evans 1906) and the HT bronze ingots (Parise 1967: 119: 27-32 kg). Evidence for the mina and its fractions comes from many smaller weights.

    Linear ALinear BDenominationMass (gr, approximate)Fraction of TalentFraction of preceding
    A118 B118talent29,0001/1-
    A717, DD B117, Mdouble mina9671/301/30
    A703, D-mina4831/601/2
    A711, X B116, N1/2 mina2421/1201/2
    - B115, P1/24 mina20.21/14401/12
    - B*21, Q1/144 mina?(3.36)1/86401/6


    Layout

    16. Word Separation
    Word separation is indicated in two major ways: by associating sign groups with numbers or logograms, thereby implying a separation (e.g., HT 1.2: ZU-SU 70; HT 18.1: PA-SE GRA+QE), and by placing a dot between two sign groups, thereby explicitly separating the sign groups (e.g., HT 1.1-2: QE-RA2-U • KI-RO) or between a sign group and some other sign like a transaction sign (e.g., HT 6a.1-2: DA-TA-RA • TE • FIC) or a logogram (e.g., HT 2.1: A-KA-RU • OLE+U).

    In texts that employ a string of signgroups, dots separate them. This practice is most notable on non-bureaucratic texts (like the hair pins, e.g., CR(?) Zf 1) and especially in religious texts like those on the "Libation Tables" (e.g., IO Za 2).


    17. "Hyphenization"
    Most Linear A documents avoid splitting a word across two lines. Where a split in an expression does cut across two lines, there seems to be a semantic reason:
    a sign group and a number
    the components of a number (e.g., hundreds from units, units from fractions)
    sign group and logogram
    two sign groups

    The above are obvious examples, and I think of this as a Minoan practice similar to our practice of dividing words across lines of text by placing a hyphen between syllables. Where a split occurs within a sign group, the reason may involve separating prefixes from base words (the root of a sign group) or base words from their suffixes. These will require a demonstration that affixes are involved. But some examples will be apparent (e.g., U-MI- | -NA-SI, HT 28b.1-2 & HT 117a.1-2; U-NA-KA- | -NA-]SI, IO Za 21).

    In a PDF, I list all examples of separation within signgroups, between signgroups and logograms or numbers, and within numbers; I characterize the separation (e.g., sign group & logogram, term & fraction, hundreds & tens); and more controversially I suggest separations between base word and affixes.


    18. The Continuity Principle

    Many documents seem to have economized when listing commodities: the last cited NAME, situation, or commodity prevails until another situation is stated. I call this the "continuity principle." It is most apparent where a NAME is followed by a list of different commodities and amounts, each commodity related to that NAME until a different NAME is cited with its own list of commodities.

    Two clear examples are HT 18 & 19:

    HT 18
    side.linestatementlogogramnumberfraction
    .1PA-SEGRA+QE20  
    .1  OLE+KI2  
    .2  *3043  
    .2SA-RA2GRA10  
    .2-3  FIC10  
    .4-5 vacant       

    HT 19
    side.linestatementlogogramnumberfraction
    .1-2RA-*164a-TI• TE • VINa30  
    .2-3SA-RO  5J
    .3-4DU-ME-DI  43J

    HT 18 assumes that the first 3 commodities are associated with PA-SE and the second 2 commodities are associated with SA-RA2. In other words, the situation ("commodities associated with NAME") is assumed to be stable until a second name occurs which calls for a different distribution.

    HT 19, however, assumes that VINa is associated with (or continues among) all three NAMES. Presumably the situation would change if a fourth name were listed with a different commodity.

    HT 20 presents a more subtle pattern of continuity:

    HT 20
    side.linestatementlogogramnumberfraction
    .1PA-RO-SU      
    .1-2KU-MA-JU    E
    .2-3QE-KU-REDIJ
    .4  CAPmF
    .2SA-RE-JU F
    .2-3  WAE
    .4-5 *188+KU  J

    Here, KU-MA-JU (.1-2) could be KU-MA JU, with JU being a logogram. QE-KU-RE is associated with a different logogram DI, then CAPm, which is apparently the commodity also associated with (and continued to) SA-RE-JU, which is then associated with a different second and third commodity.

    The documents that employ the Continuity Principle might therefore reflect short initial documents that record contributions which are then organized in an outline fashion. For instance, I can imagine 5 separate documents being collated to produce HT 20:

    1QE-KU-REDIJ =QE-KU-REDIJ
    2QE-KU-RECAPmF = CAPmF
    3SA-RE-JUCAPmF =SA-RE-JU F
    4SA-RE-JUWAE = WAE
    5SA-RE-JU*188+KUJ = *188+KUJ

    The implication of such a system is that the 5 separate short texts (really more like chits) were brought together, not because they represent the same contributions or contributions from the same place/person, but because they represent contributions organized according to a larger principle: 1) made at the same time, or 2) made from the same region/person, or 3) organized/collected by the same Collector.


    Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger: jyounger@ku.edu

    For the Linear A texts from Haghia Triada (Ayia Triada)

    For other Linear A texts

    Common Linear A Ideograms; GORILA's sign charts and palaeographic sign charts

    For Linear A religious texts grouped separately

    A Linear A Lexicon

    Phonetic Grids for Linear A & B.

    Hypothetical Phonetic Grids for Cretan Hieroglyphic.

    Bibliography from 1980 on (with select works prior)