A Bibliography for Aegean Glyptic

Part II

continuing from

J.G. Younger, Corpus der minoischen und mykenischen Siegel [CMS] Beiheft 4: A Bibliography for Aegean Glyptic in the Bronze Age (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1991)

CMS I, no. 223: lentoid of red jasper from the Vapheio Tholos cist (LH IIA context): robed man holds a griffin on a leash; on his wrist, a sealstone: Rehak 1994.

inaugural date: 1 August 2000
last update: 3 August 2017

Comments and additions are welcome: jyounger@ku.edu

Sphragis homepage

Bibliography I: from the late 4th c. BCE (Theophrastos) to 1990 CE (CMS Beiheft 4, A Bibliography for Aegean Glyptic in the Bronze Age, by John G. Younger. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag 1991).

Bibliography II: from 1990 CE - present

Bibliography III. Volumes of the CMS

Arachne, images from the University of Cologne and the German Archaeological Institute
all seals published in the CMS (for both web access sites, create an account and log in for best results)

Table of Contents

A. Bibliography, arranged by author
I. Books & Articles

B. Thematic Index
I. Primary Sources for Aegean Glyptic in the Bronze Age
Excavation Reports

II. Articles or Books Primarily Concerning Special Aspects of Aegean Bronze Age Glyptic
Classes, arranged by Materials, Shapes and Style
Craftsmen and Workshops
Foreign Relations
Forgeries under Discussion
Individual Seals, Rings, Sealings, Pottery Impressions
Seal Use
Signs on Seals

III. Reviews

IV. Other Relevant Aegean Bronze Age Topics
Craftsmen & Workshops
Foreign Relations

V. The Glyptic of Other Cultures, Other Times
Asia Minor
Foreign Seals in Bronze Age Greece
Greece, Post-Bronze Age
Near East

VI. General Articles on Materials, Methods & Techniques

VII. Relevant Bibliographies & Journals

C. Topographical Index

D. Seal Websites & Email Addresses

Format and abbreviations for journals and books follow those formulated in the General Editorial Policy and Notes for Contributors, published in AJA 104.1 (January 2000) 1-24.

A. Bibliography, arranged by author

I. Books & Articles

Abrassart, Anne-Catherine.
2000 "Étude des sceaux prismatiques datés du Minoen moyen: matériaux, provenance et iconographie." RALouvain 33: 1-9.

Adrimi-Sismani, V.
2010"Seals and Jewellery from Ancient Iolkos," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 37-56

Akkermans, P.M.M.G and K. Duistermaat
1997"Of Storage and Nomads. The Sealings from Late Neolithic Sabi Abyad, Syria," Paléorient 22 (1997) 17-44.

Alexandri, A.
1994"Gender Symbolism in Late Bronze Age Aegean Glyptic Art" (Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge University, 1994).
1999 "Seals and Sealings in the Bronze Age Aegean. Gods and Heroes of the European Bronze Age." In: Gods and Heroes of the Bronze Age. Europe at the Time of Ulysses, edited by Demakopoulou, Katie, Christiane Eluère, Jørgen Jensen, Albrecht Jockenhövel, and Jean-Pierre Mohen. 192-97. London: Thames and Hudson.

Amiet, P.
1994 "Sceaux et administration à l'époque d'Uruk, à Suse." In: Ferioli et al. 1994: 87-94..
1995 "Les sceaux-cylindres de Ras Shamra au IIe millénaire." In: Ras Shamra-Ougarit, 11. Le pays d'Ougarit autour de 1200 av. J.-C.: Histoire et archéologie. Actes du Colloque International Paris, 28 juin - 1er juillet 1993, edited by Marguerite Yon, Maurice Sznycer, and Pierre Bordreuil, eds., 239-44. Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations.

Anastasiadou, M.
2010"Gruppen innerhalb der mittelminoischen dreiseitigen Prismen aus weichem Stein," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 57-72
2011The Middle Minoan Three-Sided Soft Stone Prism, A Study of Style and Iconography. CMS Beiheft 9. Darmstadt/Mainz: Philipp von Zabern
2016"Drawing the Line: Seals, Script, and Regionalism in Protopalatial Crete," AJA 120: 159-193.

Andreadaki-Vlasaki, Maria, and Erik Hallager.
2007"New and Unpublished Linear A and Linear B Inscriptions from Khania," Proceedings of the Danish Institute of Athens 5 (2007) 7-22, esp. 13-15, KH Wc 2123 impressed 9 times by a lentoid carrying lentoid: two women process right, left arm up, right arm trailing behind.

Andrikou, Eleni.
2003 "Exi mykinaïkes sfragides apo ti Thiva" / "Six Mycenaean Seals from Thebes." In: Argonautis. Timitikos Tomos gia ton Kathigiti Christo G. Ntouma apo tous mathites tou sto Panepistimio Athinon (1980-2000), edited by Andreas Vlachopoulos and Kiki Mpirtacha, 609-18. Athens: I Kathimerini A.E.

1993 "The Return of Ancient Jewelry from the U.S. Greece Wants Investigations for the Stolen Treasure" (in Greek). Ta Nea, May 21: 35.

Aravantinos, V.
1990a"The Mycenaean Inscribed Sealings from Thebes: Problems of Content and Function," in Palaima ed. 1990: 149-67
Response by Palmer, 168-70; Discussion 170-74.
1990bResponse to Magness-Gardiner, in Palaima ed. 1990: 77

Archi, Alfonso.
1993 "A Seal Impression from el-Quitar/Til Abnu (Syria)." AnatSt 43: 203-206.

Aruz, J.
1990"Round-Table Comments," in Palaima ed. 1990: 233
1992 "The Stamp Seals from Tell Esh Sheikh." AnatSt 42: 15-28.
1994a "Seal Imagery and Sealing Practices in the Early Aegean World." In: Ferioli et al. 1994: 111-35.
1994bResponse to Palaima. In: Ferioli et al. 1994: 331-32
1997a "Cypriot and 'Cypro-aegean' Seals." In: De Chypre à la Bactriane, les sceaux du Proche-Orient ancien: Actes du colloque international organisé au musée du Louvre par le Service culturel le 18 mars 1995, edited by Annie Caubet, 289-316. Paris, La Documentation française, Musée du Louvre, Louvre: Conférences et colloques.
1997b "Siegel als Zeugnisse des kulturellen Austausches." In: Mit Sieben Siegeln versehen. Das Siegel in Wirtschaft und Kunst des Alten Orients edited by Evelyn Klengel-Brandt, 138-49. Mainz: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin and Verlag Philipp von Zabern.
1998"The Aegean and the Orient: The Evidence of Stamp and cylinder Seals," in Cline & Harris-Cline eds. 1998: 301-10.
1999 "The Oriental Impact on the Forms of Early Aegean Seals." In: Betancourt et al. eds. 1999, I: 7-14.
2000 "Artistic Change and Cultural Exchange - The Glyptic Evidence." In: Müller 2000: 1-13.
2005 "Unraveling the Mysteries of the Well-travelled Seal." In: Laffineur and Greco, eds. 2005, I: 751-58.
2005 "Sealing beyond the Storeroom Door in the Aegean and the Near East." In: Perna ed. 2005: 29-53.
2008Marks of Distinction. Seals and Cultural Exchange between the Aegean and the Orient (ca. 2600-1360 B.C.) (CMS Beiheft 7). Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.
2010"Intercultural Styles, Animal combats, and the Art of Exchange," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 73-82

Åström, P. & Reese, D.S.
1990"Triton Shells in East Mediterranean Cults, JPR 3-4 (1990) 5-14

Baines, J.
1993Stone Vessles, Pottery and Sealings from the Tomb of Tut'ankamun (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1993).

Baziou-Eustathiou, A.
1985"Mykenaïká apó te Néa Ionía Vólou" (Greek) / "Mycenaean Finds from Nea Ionia, Volos" (trans.), ArchDelt 40A (1985): 17-70.

Beck, C.W. & Shustak, C.A.
1982"Provenance of Late Mycenaean Amber from Emporio, Chios," Excavations in Chios 1938-1955. Prehistoric Emporio and Ayio Gala, by S. Hood (BSA suppl. vol. no. 16; Thames & Hudson, 1982): 727-30.

Beck, H.C.
1927"Classification and Nomenclature of Beads and Pendants," Archaeologia 77 (1927) 1-76

Beckman G.
1989. "More Anatolian Stamp Seals in America." OA 28: 177-182.

Beckmann, Sabine.
2003 "Archaeological Museum, Heraklion, Crete: The Ring of Minos - Lost and Found." Athena Review 3.3: 81-82.

Behm-Blancke, M.
1993"Glyptische Traditionen Beiderseits des Ost-Taurus im ausgehenden 4. und frühen 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr.," Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains. Archaeologica anatolica et mesopotamica Alba Palmieri dedicata, edited by M. Frangipane, et al. (Rome: Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche Archeologiche e Anthropologiche dell'Antichità Università di Roma "La Sapienza", 1993): 247-60.

Ben-Shlomo, David.
2006 "New Evidence of Seals and Sealings from Philistia." TelAviv 33.2: 134-62.

Ben-Tor, A.
1994"Early Bronze Age Cyinder Seal Impressions and a Stamp Seal from Tel Qashish," BASOR 195 (1994) 15-29

Bergamasco, Antonia.
2001 "I sigilli dall tholos di Vapheio: una nota." Ostraka 10: 7-24.

Berges, Dietrich
1995"The Clay Seals from the Carthaginian Temple Archive," AJA 99 (1995) 353 (abstract).
2002 Antike Siegel und Glasgemmen der Sammlung Maxwell Sommerville: im University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia PA. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.

Berry, B.Y.
1969Ancient Gems from the Collection of Burton Y. Berry (Bloomington: Indiana University Art Museum Extended Loan Exhibition Catalogue, 1969)

Besevliev, V.
1981. "Sprachliches auf byzantinischen Bleisiegeln." JOEByz 30: 63-74.

Betancourt, Philip P.
2007. "Lasithi and the Malia-Lasithi State." In: Betancourt et al. 2007: 209-219.
2010"The Importance of Contexts in the Dating of Aegean Artifacts," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 83-90

Betancourt, Philip P., Vassos Karageorghis, Robert Laffineur, and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier. eds.
1999 Meletemata: Studies in Aegean Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as He Enters His 65th Year. 3 vols. Université de Liège, Histoire de l'art et archéologie de la Grèce antique; University of Texas at Austin: Programs in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory.

Betts, J. H.
1988"A Technical Revolution: Gem Engraving in MM III," BICS 35 (1988) 163.
1989"Seals of Middle Minoan III: Chronology and Technical Revolution," CMS Beiheft 3 (1989): 1-17.
1993a"Precious Baubles for Princes: Jewelry and Engraved Gems of the Aegean Bronze Age" (lecture, given 1 April 1993, for an exhibition at the Michael Ward Gallery (9 E. 93rd St, New York, NY).
1993bIntroduction and catalogue: Gold of the Mycenaeans. Important Finger Rings, Sealstones and Ornaments of the 15th Century B.C. (New York: Michael Ward Gallery, 1993)
1997. "Minoan and Mycenaean Seals." In: Collon 1997: 54-73.

Betts, John H. and Stark C. Ward.
1993 Gold of the Mycenaeans. Important Finger Rings, Sealstones and Ornaments of the 15th Century B.C. Lunenburg VT: The Stinehour Press.

Betts, John H., and John G. Younger
1982"Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Masters and Workshops, I. Introduction", Kadmos 21: 104-121.

Bietak, Manfred, and Ernst Czerny, eds.
2004 Scarabs of the Second Millennium BC from Egypt, Nubia, Crete and the Levant: Chronological and Historical Implications. Papers of a Symposium, Vienna, 10th-13th of January 2002 Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Blakolmer, F.
2010"Small is Beautiful. The Significance of Aegean Glyptic for the Study of Wall Paintings, Relief Frescoes and Minor Relief Arts," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 91-108

Blasingham, A.
1989"Analyzing Early Cretan Seals: A Comparison of Mesara Tomb Groups," AJA 93 (1989) 252.
1992"Local- versus Long-Distance Trade in the Pre-Palatial Mesara, Crete: Problems of Raw Materials for Seal-Making," Hydra 10 (1992): 4-12

Blegen, C. W.
1928Zygouries. A Prehistoric Settlement in the Valley of Cleonae (Cambridge MA: Harvard UP, 1928).

Blegen, C. W. & Lang, M.
1959"Sealing from Pylos," Nestor I (1959) 65.

Bloedow, E.F.
1991"The Lion in Mycenaean Culture," 2nd International Mycenological Congress (Rome-Naples, 14-20 October 1991) (CITY: PRESS, 1991): PAGES ??.
1992"Minoan Talismanic Goats," JPR 6 (1992) 15-23.
2001 "The Agrimi as a potnia theron Motif in Minoan Glyptic." JPR 15: 4-10.

Boardman, J.
1989Review of Pini et al. 1988, CMS XI, in Gnomon 61 (1989) 373-74.
1997 "Greek Seals." In: Collon 1997: 74-87.
2003 "Seal Engraving in the Mediterranean, 1000-500 BC." In: Ploes.. Sea Routes.. Interconnections in the Mediterranean, 6th-6th c. BC. Proceedings of the International Symposium Held at Rethymnon, Crete, September 29th-October 2nd 2003, edited by Nicholas C. Stampolidis and Vassos Karageorghis, 305-11. Athens: University of Crete and the A.G. Leventis Foundation.

Boardman, J. & Palmer, L.R. [also see: Palmer, L.R. & Boardman, J.; Kenna, V.E.G. 1963] ^M
1963 On the Knossos Tablets (Oxford University Press, 1963)

[L.R. Palmer's contribution "The Find-Places of the Knossos Tablets", pages numbered in roman, esp. pp. 197-203: "Part III 3, The Clay Sealings"; J. Boardman's contribution "The Date of the Knossos Tablets", pages numbered in italics, esp. pp. 96-100: "Notes on the Knossos Sealings" by V.E.G. Kenna]

Boehmer, Rainer Michael.
1996 "Nochmals zur Datierung der Glyptik von Karahöyük Schicht I." IstMitt 46: 17-22.

Boehmer, R.M. & Güterbock, H.G.
1987Glyptik aus dem Stadtgebiet von Bogazköy. Grabunskampagnen 1931-1939, 1952-1978. Bogazköy-Hattusa, XIV: Die Glyptik von Bogazköy (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1987).

Boschloos, Vanessa
2008"Egyptian Scarab-Shaped Seals from the Northern Levant and Cyprus: Current Research," a paper given 27-29 November 2008 at the 8th annual Posgraduate in Cypriote Archeology conference held at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels (http://www.vub.ac.be/mari/POCA2008.html) -- to be published as a SIMA-PB.
2012"Late Bronze Age Cornelian and Red Jasper Scarabs with Cross Designs. Egyptian, Levantine or Minoan?," Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 4.2 (May/June 2012) 5-16.
2015"Egyptian Scarab-shaped Seals from the Northern Levant and Cyprus. Current State of Researc." In: Ariane Jacobs & Peter Cosyns eds), Cypriot Material Culture Studies from Picrolite Carving to Proskynetaria Analysis. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Postgraduate Cypriot Archaeology Conference Held in Memory of Paul Åström, at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium) from 27 to 29 November 2008. Brussels: VUB Press, p. 141-151.

Bregstein, Linda B.
1993Seal Use in Fifth Century B.C. Nippur, Iraq: A Study of Seal Selection and Sealing Practices in the Murashu Archive (Ph.D. dissertation, U. Pennsylvania, 1993) (University Microfilms Order No. 9413807).

Brice, W.
1991"Notes on the Cretan Hieroglyphic Script: III. The Inscriptions from Mallia Quartier Mu. IV. The Clay Bar from Knossos, P116," Kadmos 30 (1991): 93-104.

Brosius, Maria, ed.
2003 Ancient Archives and Archival Traditions: Concepts of Record-Keeping in the Ancient World (Oxford Studies in Ancient Adocuments). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brysac, S.
1996"Mycenaean Jewelry Goes Home," Archaeology 49 (1996): 27.

Buchanan, Briggs, and P.R.S. Moorey.
1988. Catalogue of Ancient Near Eastern Seals in the Ashmolean Museum, 3: The Iron Age Stamp Seals (c. 1200-350 B.C.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Calinescu, A. ed.
1996Ancient Jewelry and Archaeology (Bloomington: Indiana UP. 1996).
Rev.: M. Henig, AJA 101 (1997): 808-10.

Carbillet, Aurélie
2006"À propos d'un sceau chypriote du British Museum," Cahier: Centre d'études chypriotes 36: 31-41.

Caskey, J.L.
1986"Did the Early Bronze Age End?" The End of the Early Bronze Age in the Aegean, edited by G. Cadogan (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1986): 9-30.

Caskey, M.
1990"Thoughts on Early Bronze Age Hearths," in Hägg & Nordquist eds. 1990: 13-21.

Caspers, E.C.L. During
1983"?," Annuario dell'Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli 43 (1983): 661-70.

Castiglioni, Ottavio and Giulio Calegari
1978"Corpus delle pintaderas preistoriche italiane: Problematica e iconografia," Memorie Societa italiani Scienze Naturale e Museo Civico Storia Naturiale Milano 22 (1978): 7-30.

Chadwick, J.
1959"Inscribed Sealings from Mycenae," Eranos 57 (1959): 1-5.

Cherry, J.
1992"Beazley in the Bronze Age? Reflections on Attribution Studies in Aegean Prehistory," in Laffineur & Crowley eds. 1992: 123-44.

Cline, E. H.
1989. "A Problematic Scarab from the Thermojannis Collection." AAA 22: 131-138.

Cline, Eric, and Diane Harris-Cline eds.
1988The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium: Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary symposium, Cincinnati, 18-20 April 1997 (Liège: Aegaeum 18, 1998).

Cluzan, Sophie
2007"La présence bovine dans la glyptique d'Ougarit et d'Enkomi," Cahier: Centre d'études chypriotes 37 (Hommage à Annie Caubet: Actes du colloque international "Chypre et la côte du Levant aux IIe et Ier millénaires, Paris, 14-16 juin 2007"): 115-44.

Coleman, J.E.
1985"'Frying Pans' of the Early Bronze Age Aegean," AJA 89 (1985) 191-219, esp. 218-19: "Appendix: Stamped Concentric Circles and Sprials in the Cyclades and on the Mainland"

Collon, Dominique.
1988Das Mykenische Hellas, Heimat der Helden Homers (Sonderausstellung Berlin, 1 June - 19 August 1988) (Athen: PRESS, 1988).
1990"Cylinder Seals in the Pierides Collection," RDAC 69-74.
1994"Bull-Leaping in Syria," Ägypten und Levante 4 (1994): 81-88.
2010"Seal Owners and Sealing Practices in the Ancient Near East in the Second Millennium BC with Particular Reference to Syria," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 109-30

Collon, Dominique, ed.
1997 7000 Years of Seals. London: British Museum Press.
2000 "Syrian Glyptic and the Thera Wall Paintings." In: The Wall Paintings of Thera. Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Petros M. Nomikos Conference Centre, Thera, Hellas, 30 August - 4 September 1997, edited by S. Sherratt, I: 283-94. Athens: Thera Foundation - Petros M. Nomikos and The Thera Foundation.
2007"Le sceau d'Uluburun KW 1463: 'petit prince' ou 'Grand roi'?" Cahier: Centre d'études chypriotes 37 (Hommage à Annie Caubet: Actes du colloque international "Chypre et la côte du Levant aux IIe et Ier millénaires, Paris, 14-16 juin 2007"): 145-56.

Cosmopoulos, M.B.
1992"The Development of Iconography in the Early Bronze 2 Aegean," in Laffineur & Crowley eds. 1992: 87-96

Coeuret, G., and H. Guiraud.
1980. "Une intaille au capricorne à Pouillé (Loir-et-Cher)." RACF 19: 29-34.

Crowley, J. L. (also see R. Laffineur & J. Crowley eds.)
1989The Aegean and the East. An Investigation into the Transference of Artistic Motifs between the Aegean, Egypt, and the Near East in the Bronze Age (Göteborg: SIMA Pocketbook 51, 1989).
1992"The Icon Imperative: Rules of Composition in Aegean Art," in Laffineur & Crowley eds. 1992: 23-37.
1999 "Essay on Ten Precious Gems: Originality in Aegean Art. In: Betancourt et al. eds. 1999, I: 155-63.
2010"The Composition of Complex Scenes in Aegean Glyptic," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 131-48
2013The Iconography of Aegean Seals (Aegaeum 34). Liège and Austin TX: Peeters 2013

Cucuzza, N.
2006"Un sigillo miceneo da Lipari?," Studi Micenea ed Anatolici 48, 2006, 73-88

Czernohaus, K.
1988Delphindarstellungen von der minoischen bis zur geometrischen Zeit (Göteborg: SIMA Pocketbook 67, 1988)
Rev.: I. Pini, Gnomon 30 (1992) 464-66

D'Agata, A.L.
1992"Late Minoan Crete and Horns of Consecration: a Symbol in Action," in Laffineur & Crowley eds. 1992: 247-56.

Dakoronia, Phanouria, Sigrid Deger-Jalkotzy, and Agnes Sakellariou, eds.
1996 Kleinere greichische Sammlungen: Die Siegel aus der Nekropole von Elatia-Alonaki (CMS 5 Suppl. 2). Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Davaras, K.
1986"Proimes minwikes sphragides kai sphragistiko daktylioi apo to spelaio Gerontomouri Lasthiou" (Greek) / "Early Minoan seals and signet rings from the cave Gerontomouri in Lasithi" (trans.), ArchEph 1986: 9-48
1988. "Ena Paleoanaktoriko prizma apo to spileo Yerondomuri Lasithiu" ("A Prepalatial Prism Seal from the Cave Yerondomuri in Lasithi"). Cretan Studies 1: 49-55.

Davaras, K., & Soles, J.
1994"Enas neos anatolikos sphragidokylindros apo ton Mokhlo" (Greek) / "A new Near Eastern cylinder seal from Mokhlos" (trans.), Cretan Studies 4 (1994): 71-76.
1995 (1997)"A New Oriental Cylinder Seal from Mochlos. Appendix: Catalogue of the Cylinder Seals Found in the Aegean," ArchEph 1995 (1997): 29-66

Davis, Jack L., and Sharon R. Stocker
2016"The Lord of the Gold Rings. The Griffin Warrior of Pylos," Hesperia 85.4 (1016) 627-655

Deger-Jalkotzy, Sigrid.
2000 "Ammerkungen zu einem 'Siegel' aus der mykenischen Nekropole von Elateia-Alonaki." In: Ö sterreichische Forschungen zur Ägäischen Bronzezeit 1998. Akten der Tagung am Institut für Klassische Archäologie der Universität Wien 2.-3. Mai 1998, edited by Fritz Blakolmer, 199-207. Vienna: Phoibos Verlag.

Demakopoulou, K.
1990"The Burial Ritual in the Tholos Tomb at Kokla, Argolis," in Hägg & Nordquist eds. 1990: 113-23.
1991"Palace Workshops in Thebes," 2nd International Mycenological Congress (Rome-Naples, 14-20 October 1991) (CITY: PRESS, 1991): PAGES ??.

Demakopoulou, Katie, ed.
1996. The Aidonia Treasure: Seals and Jewellery of the Aegean Late Bronze Age. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, 30 May - 1 September 1996. Athens: Ministry of Culture.

Demakopoulou, K., N. Divari-Vaïkou, & G. Walberg
1994"Excavations and Restoration Work in Midea 1990-1992," OpAth 20 (1994) 19-41.

Dembski, G.
1979. "Ein Ringfragment mit Gemme aus Traismauer, BH St. Pölten, Niederösterreich." ROE 7: 9-11.

De Miro, Ernesto, Louis Godart, and Anna Sacconi, eds.
1996 Atti e memorie del secondo Congresso internazionale di micenologia, Roma-Napoli, 14-20 ottobre 1991, 3 vols. (Incunabula Graeca 98). Rome: Gruppo editoriale internazionale.

de Pierpont, G.
1990"Aegean Jewellery: a New Approach to a Typology. Application on Gold and Silver Minoan Jewellery (2700-1450)," OpAth 18 (1990): 157-66.

Detournay, B., Poursat, J.-C., & Olivier, J.-P.
1980Fouilles Exécutées à Mallia. Le Quartier Mu, II. Vases de pierre et de métal, vannerie, figurines et reliefs d'applique, éléments de parure et de décoration, armes, sceaux et empreintes (Paris: ÉtCrét 26; Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner; Paris, 1980), esp. Ch. VII: 157-229.

Dickers, Aurelia
1994 "Die Siegel aus der nachpalastzeitlichen Nekropole von Armeni / Westkreta." In: Studies in Honour of Otto-Herman Frey for His 65th Birthday, edited by Claus Dobiat, 139-47. Marburg/Lahn: Hitzeroth Verlag.
2001Die spätmykenischen Siegel aus weichem Stein: Untersuchungen zur spätbronzezeitlichen Glyptik auf dem griechischen Festland und in der Ägäis. Rahden: Marie Leidorf.

Diederich, T.
2010"Funktion, Typologie, Ikonographie und Bedeutung der Siegel im Mittelalter," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 149-62

Dierckx, H. M. C.
1992"Aspects of Minoan Technology, Culture, and Economy: The Bronze Age Stone Industry of Crete (Greece)" (PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania) (University Microfilms Order No. 9227650)

Dimopoulou, Nota.
2000 "Seals and Scarabs from the Minoan Port Settlement at Poros-Katsambas." In: Müller 2000: 27-38.

Dimopoulou, Nota and Giorgos Rethemiotakis.
2000 "The 'Sacred Conversation' Ring from Poros." In: Müller 2000: 39-56.
2004 The Ring of Minos and Gold Minoan Rings: The Epiphany Cycle. Athens: Ministry of Culture Archaeological Receipts Fund.

Dontas, G.S.
1957"Arkhaiai hellenikai demosiai sphragides" (Greek) / "Ancient Greek Official Sealings" (trans.), ArchEph 1957, 1-21

Doumas, Christos.
2000 "Seal Impressions from Akrotiri, Thera: A Preliminary Report." In: Müller 2000: 57-65.

Dousougli-Zachos, A.
1989"Ein frühhelladischer Stempelroller aus Ton," CMS Beiheft 3, 19-25

Drakaki, E.
2007 "Late Bronze Age Hard Stone Seals with the Motif of a Pair of Recumbent Bulls from the Greek Mainland." Poster given at the AIA meetings, 4-7 January 2007.
2008"A Contextual Approach to the Ownership of 'Common Mitannian Style' Cylinder Seals from the Late Bronze Age Greek Mainland." 109th Annual Meeting Abstracts. January 3-6, 2008, Chicago, Illinois 31: 24. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America.

Driessen, J.
1994-1995"Data Storage for Reference and Prediction at the Dawn of Civilization? A Review Article with some Observations on Archives before Writing," Minos 29-30 (1994-1995): 329-56.

Driessen, Jan, and Alexandre Farnoux, eds.
1997 La Crète mycénienne: Actes de la Table Ronde Internationale organisée par l'École française d'Athènes (26-28 Mars 1991). (BCH Supplément 30). Paris: De Boccard Édition-Diffusion; Athènes: École française d'Athènes.

Duhoux, Y.
1972Comments in Nestor 1972, 810.

Duistermaat, K.
2010"Administration in Neolithic Societies" the First Use of Seals in Syria and Some Considerations on Seal Owners, Seal Use and Private Property," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 163-78

Dyczek, P.
1991 "The So-called Royal Signet-Bead from Pylos." Études et travaux 15 (30): 140-48.
1992"The Late Helladic Seals from Pylos," (trans.; in Polish) Studia i Materialy Archeologiczne 9 (1992): 45-61.

Eder, Birgitta.
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Tsangkaraki, Euangelia.
2006 Sphragismata me parastaseis anthropinon morphon: Sumbole ste melete tou dioiketikou sustematos tes neoanakrotikes Kretes (Sealings with representations of the human form. A Contribution to the Study of the Adminstrative System of Neopalatial Crete). Chania: Istorikes, Laographies kai Arkhaiologikes Etaireias Kretes.
2010"Sealings with Representations of Human Figures: A Neopalatial Repertoire and its Significance in the Administrative System," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 363-82

Tsipopoulou, Metaxia
1998"??," AJA 102 (1998) ?? (abstract).

Tsipopoulou, Metaxia, & Erik Hallager
1995"Evidence for Seal Use in Prepalatial Western Crete," CMS Beiheft 5 (1995) 251-70
1996"Inscriptions with Hieroglyphs and Linear A from Petras, Siteia," SMEA 37 (1996a) 7-46, esp. 39-42.
1996b"A New Hieroglyphic Archive from Petras, Siteia," Kadmos 35 (1996) 164-67.

Tsipopoulou, M., & E. Hallager (with contributions by C. D. Annibale and D. Mylona)
2010Hieroglyphic Archive at Petras, Siteias. Athens: The Danish Institute at Athens.

Tzavella-Evjen, H.
1990"The Ring of the Queen," in Hägg & Nordquist eds. 1990: 171-74.

Ulanowska, A.
1993"The Gold Ring from Mycenae. Some Remarks about Dance," ArcheologiaWar 44 (1993) 113-17.

Ünal, A.
1989"Drawings, Graffiti and Squiggles on the Hittite Tablets -- Art in Scribal Circles," in Kutlu, Hrouda, Mellink, & Özgüc eds. 1989: 505-14.

Vandervondelen, M
1994"Singes accroupis. Étude de quelques statuettes de la période prépalatiale crétoise," Studia Varia Bruxellensia 3 (1994): 177-83.

van Effenterre, H. & M.
1989"Pour une statistique thématique des sceaux créto-mycéniens," CMS Beiheft 3, 27-39.
1992"L'iconographie du temps dans la glyptique créto-mycénienne," in Laffineur & Crowley eds. 1992: 325-30.

Vlachou, Constantina
1995"Jewellery-Making Techniques from Antiquity to Recent Times," in Mikou-Karachaliou 1995, 16-41.

von Pilgrim, Cornelius.
2001 "The Practice of Sealing in the Administration of the First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom." Cahier de Recherches de l'Institut de Papyrologie et d'Egyptologie de Lille 22: 161-72.

von Rosen, L.
1988Lapis Lazuli in Geological Contexts and in Ancient Written Sources (Göteborg: SIMA Pocket-Book 65; Partille, 1988)

von Wickede, A.
1990Prähistorische Stempelglyptik in Vorderasien (Munich: Münchener Universitäts-Schriften Philosophische Fakultät 12; Profil Verlag, 1990).

Waelkens, M. Hertz, N., & Moens, L., eds.
1992Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance. Interdisciplinary Studies on Stones and Stone Technology in Europe and the Near East from the Prehistoric to the Early Chritisna Period (Leuven: Acta Archaeologica Lovanensia Monograph 4; Leuven UP, 1992).

Walberg, G.
1976Kamares. A Study of the Character of Palatial Middle Minoan Pottery (Upsala 1976)
1983Provincial Middle Minoan Pottery (Philipp von Zabern; Mainz, 1983)
1989"Zur Komposition minoischer Vasenmalerei und Siegel," CMS Beiheft 3, 289-97.
1991"Excavations on the Lower Terraces at Midea in the Argolid 1989-1991," AJA 94 (1991): ?? (abstract).
1992"Minoan Floral Iconography," in Laffineur & Crowley eds. 1992: 241-46.

Warburton, David A.
1997 State and Economy in Ancient Egypt: Fiscal Vocabulary of the New Kingdom (Fribourg: Fribourg UP, 1997).

Ward, Michael, Inc. (also see Betts 1993 a & b)
1990The Art of Prehistoric Greece. The Stone Age to Mycenae. A Guide to the Exhibition (New York: Michael Ward, Inc., Inc. [9 E. 934d Street, New York, NY 10128], Fall 1990): 20- 21.

Ward, W.A.
1994"Beetles in Stone: The Egyptian Scarab," BiblArch 57 (1994): 186-202.
2003 "Scarabs." In: Near Eastern Archaeology: A Reader, edited by Suzanne Richard, 218-21. Winona Lake IN: Eisenbrauns.

Warren, G.
1990"Of Baetyls," OpAth 18 (1990): 193-206.

Warren, P.
1987Review of Hallager 1985 (CMS Beiheft 4: The Master Impression), in JPR 1 (1987): 48-50.
1988Minoan Religion as Ritual Action. Tenth Félix Neubergh Lecture at Gothenburg University, October 1986 (Göteborg: New Approaches in Minoan Religion; Göteborg UP, 1988).
1991"A Merchant Class in Bronze Age Crete? The Evidence of Egyptian Stone Vessels from the City of Knossos," in Gale ed. 1991: 295-310.
1992"Lapis Lacedaemonius," Philolakon. Laconian Studies in Honour of Hector Catling, edited by Jan M. Sanders (BSA; London, 1992): 285-306.
1997 "The Lapidary Art-Minoan Adaptations of Egyptian Stone Vessels." In: Laffineur & Betancourt, eds. 1997: 209-23.
2010"The Absolute Chronology of the Aegean circa 2000 B.C.-1400 B.C. A Summary," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 383-94

Webb, J.M.
1992"Cypriote Bronze Age Glyptic: Style, Function and Social Context," in Laffineur & Crowley eds. 1992: 113-21.
2002 "Device, Image, and Coercion: The Role of Glyptic in the Political Economy of Late Bronze Age Cyprus." In: Smith, ed., 111-54.

Webb, J.M., & Frankel, D.
1994"Making and Impression: Storage and Surplus Finance in Late Bronze Age Cyprus," JMA 7 (1994): 5-26.

Wedde, M.
1990"The 'Ring of Minos' and Beyond: Thoughts on Directional Determination in Aegean Bronze Age Ship Iconography, Hydra 7 (1990) 1-24.
1992"Pictorial Architecture: for a Theory-Based Analysis of Imagery," in Laffineur & Crowley eds. 1992: 181-203
2004 "On the Road to the Godhead: Aegean Bronze Age Glyptic Procession Scenes." In: Celebrations: Selected Papers and Discussions from the Tenth Anniversary Symposion of the Norwegian Intitute at Athens, 12-16 May 1999, edited by Michael Wedde, 151-86. Bergen; The Norwegian Institute at Athens 2004.

Weingarten, J.
1988"Seal-Use at LM IB Ayia Triada: A Minoan Elite in Action. II, Aesthetic Considerations," Kadmos 27 (1988) 89-114
1989"Some Connections between Iconography, Glyptic 'Families', and the Minoan Administrative Elite in Neopalatial Crete," AJA 93 (1989): 282.
1989"First Joint Archaeological Congress, Baltimore, January 5-9, 1989," Kadmos 28 (1989) 175-76.
1989"Formulaic Implications of Some Late Bronze Age Three-Sided Prisms," CMS Beiheft 3, 299-313.'
1989"7. The Noduli, a Sealing and a Seal," in J.A. Macgillivray, et al., "Excavations at Palaikastro, 1988," BSA 84 (1989): 438-44.'
1990"Three Upheavals in Minoan Sealing Administration: Evidence for Radical Change," in Palaima ed. 1990: 105-14.
Response by Pini, 115-16; Discussion, 116-20.
1990Response to Hallager, in Palaima ed. 1990: 143-44.
1990"More Unusual Minoan Clay Nodules: Addendum II," Kadmos 29 (1990): 16-23.
1990"The Sealing Structure of Karahöyük and Some Administrative Links with Phaistos and Crete," OA 29 (1990): 63-95.
1990"The Metamorphosis of a Grain Stalk into a Goddess: some thoughts on how glyptic art changed in the early neopalatial period," 28: 95-105. Published version of a talk given at Duke University as part of a conference "Sealstones, Sealings, and Mycenaean Administration" held on 16 January 1989; see Younger 1990 ("New Observations"), Pini 1990c, and Fiandra, "Design and Style of the MM and LM Ceramics," SMEA 28 (1990) 117-24.
1990"The Concept of Schools and the Identification of Dynamic Relationships between Glyptic Artists in the Bronze Age." In: Proceedings of the Sixth Cretological Congress (A2). Khania, 366-379.
1991"A Royal Egyptian 'Nodulus' from Canaan," Kadmos 30 (1991): 87-89.
1991The Transformation of Egyptian Taweret into the Minoan Genius: A Study in Cultural Transmission in the Middle Bronze Age (Partille: SIMA 88, 1991).
Rev. by N. Marinatos, JPR 6 (1992): 55-56.
1991"Late Bronze Age Trade within Crete: The Evidence of Seals and Sealings," in Gale ed. 1991: 303-24.
1992"A Preliminary Comparison of Some Middle Bronze Age Sealing Systems" in Gli Archivi Prima della Scrittura (colloquium; 23-25 October 1991, Rome) (forthcoming).
1992 "The Multiple Sealing System of Minoan Crete and Its Possible Antecedents in Anatolia." OJA 11: 25-37.
1993"A Colloquium on the Theme 'Archives before Writing,' Oriolo Romano, Italy, 23-25 October 1991," Kadmos 32 (1993): 1-18.
1994"Two Sealing Studies in the Middle Bronze Age. I: Karahöyük. II: Phaistos," in Ferioli, Fiandra, Fissore, & Frangipane, 1994: 261-96.
1994Response to Pitman, in Ferioli, Fiandra, Fissore, & Frangipane, 1994: 205-06.
1994 "Sealings and Sealed Documents at Bronze Age Knossos." In: Knossos: A Labyrinth of History. Papers Presented in Honour of Sinclair Hood, British School at Athens, Greece, edited by D. Evely, H. Hughes-Brock, and N. Momigliano, 171-88. Oxford & Bloomington IN: Oxbow Books & David Brown Book Company.
1994"Seal-Use and Administration in the south-West Basement Area at Knossos," BSA 89 (1994): 151-56.
1995Review of Younger 1993, BibOri 52 (1995): 470-75.
1996 "The Impact of Some Aegean Gem Engravers on Cypriot Glyptic Art: Thoughts on a 'Chicken or Egg' Problem." In: Minotaur and Centaur: Studies in the Archaeology of Crete and Euboea Presented to Mervyn Popham (BAR-IS 638), edited by Doniert Evely, Irene S. Lemos, and Susan Sherratt, 79-86. Oxford: Tempus Reparatum.
1997 Another Look at Lerna: An EHIIB Trading Post? OJA 16: 147-66.
1997"The Sealing Bureaucracy of Mycenaean Knossos: The Identification of Some Officials and Their Seals," in Farnoux & Driessen eds. 1997: 517-35.
1997Review of Hallager 1996 & Popham & Gill 1995.
1999"War Scenes and Ruler Iconography in a Golden Age: Some Lessons on Missing Minoan Themes from the United Provinces (17th c A.D.)," in Laffineur ed., 1999: 347-57.
2000 "Early Helladic II Sealings from Geraki in Lakonia: Evidence for Property, Textile Manufacture, and Trade." In: Müller 2000: 317-29.
2000 "Lerna: Sealings in a Landscape." In: Perna, ed. 2000: 103-23.
2000 "Some Seal-Impressed Weights from Eastern Crete." In: Karetsou, Detorakis, and Kalokairinos, eds. 2000, A3: 485-95.
2003 "A Tale of Two Interlaces." Cretan Studies 9 (Briciaka. A Tribute to W. C. Brice, edited by Yves Duhoux): 285-99.
2005Review of Krzyszkowska 2005, Aegean Seals
2005 "How Many Seals Make a Heap: Seals and Interconnections on Prepalatial Crete." In: Laffineur and Greco, eds. 2005, II: 759-66.
2006 "Some Early Unstamped Sealings from Palaikastro, E. Crete." Paper given at the 10th International Cretological Congress, Khania, Crete, 1-8 October 2006. http://www.chrysostomos-chania.gr.
2010"Corridors of Power: A Social Network Analysis of the Minoan 'Replica Rings'," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 395-412

Weißhaar, H.-J.
1989"Reliefpithoi und Herdplatten aus Tiryns," CMS Beiheft 3, 315-22.

Weng, Gayla.
2001 "Kamares Ware and South Cretan Seals." Aegean Archaeology 5: 55-62.

Wiencke, M.H.-
1977"Tholos A at A. Triada and the Dating of Early Minoan Art," AJA 80 (1977): ?? (abstract).

Wiener, M.
1990"Round-Table Comments," in Palaima ed. 1990: 236-39

Wilkie, N.C.
1992a"The MME Tholos Tomb: The Sealstones, " Excavations at Nichoria in Southwest Greece, II: The Bronze Age Occupation, edited by W.A. McDonald & N.C. Wilkie (Minneapolis: U. Minnesota, 1992): 231-44.
1992b"The Mycenaean Seals from the Settlement," Excavations at Nichoria in Southwest Greece, II: The Bronze Age Occupation, edited by W.A. McDonald & N.C. Wilkie (Minneapolis: U. Minnesota, 1992).

Wingerath, Halina
1995Studien zur Darstellung des Menschen in der miinoischen Kunst der älteren und jüngeren Palastzeit (Marburg: Tectum Verlag, 1995).
Rev. by J.G. Younger, in AJA 100 (1996): 810-11.

Wohlfeil, Jutta Beate.
1997 Die Bildersprache minoischer und mykenischer Siegel (Freiburg Dissertations in Aegean Archaeology; BAR-IS 685). Oxford: Archaeopress.

Wojtilla, G.
1973"Indian Precious Stones in the Ancient East and West," ActaOrHung 27 (1973): 211-24.

Woudhuizen, Fred C.
2002 "A Minoan Royal Seal Issued at Malia." Kadmos 41: 123-128.

Wright, G.R.H.
1989-1990"Of Fishes and Men. Fish Symbols in Ancient Religion," JPR 3-4 (1989-1990): 30-44.

Younger, J.G. .
1982"Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Masters and Workshops, I. Introduction" (with J.H. Betts), Kadmos 21: 104-121.
1983a"Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Masters and Workshops, II. The First Generation Minoan Masters," Kadmos 22: 109-136.
1984"Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Masters and Workshops, III. The First Generation Mycenaean Masters," Kadmos 23: 38-64.
1985"Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Stylistic Groups, IV. Almond-and Dot-Eye Groups of the Fifteenth Century B.C.," Kadmos 24: 34-73.
1986a"Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Stylistic Groups, V. MinoanGroups Contemporary with LM III A1," Kadmos 25: 119-140.
1987"Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Stylistic Groups, VI. Fourteenth Century Mainland and Later Fourteenth-Century Cretan Workshops," Kadmos 26: 44-73.
1989"A Balkan-Aegean-Anatolian Glyptic Koine in the Neolithic and EBA Periods", the VIth International Aegean Symposium, Athens, Greece, 31 August-5 September 1987
1989 "Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Stylistic Groups. VII, Concordance," Kadmos 28 (1989): 101-36. An updated version is also available.
1989"Bronze Age Aegean Seals in their Middle Period (ca. 1725-1550 B.C.)," in Laffineur ed. 1989: 53-64.
1989"A Large Stylistic Group of the Late XVth Century," CMS Beiheft 3, 339-53.
1990"Round-Table Comments," in Palaima ed. 1990: 240-41.
1990"New Observations on Hieroglyphic Seals," SMEA 28 (1990): 85-93. Published version of a talk given at Duke University as part of a conference "Sealstones, Sealings, and Mycenaean Administration" held on 16 January 1989; see Weingarten 1990 ("Metamorphosis"), Pini 1990c, and Fiandra, "Design and Style of the MM and LM Ceramics," SMEA 28 (1990) 117-24.
1991Corpus der minoischen und mykenischen Siegel, Beiheft 4: A Bibliography for Aegean Glyptic in the Bronze Age. Gebrüder Mann Verlag, Berlin.
1991"Seals? from Middle Helladic Greece," Hydra 8 (1991): 35-46
1992 "Bronze Age Representations of Aegean Jewelry." In: Laffineur and Crowley, eds. 1992: 257-93.
1992Comments on the attribution process, in Laffineur & Crowley eds. 1992: 339-40.
1993Bronze Age Aegean Seals in their Middle Phase (ca. 1700-1550 B.C.) (Göteborg: SIMA 102, 1993).
Rev.: J. Weingarten, BibO 51 (1994) 165-67.
1995 "Interactions between Aegean Seals and Other Minoan-Mycenaean Art Forms." In: Pini & Müller, 1995: 331-34.
1995 "The Iconography of Rulership in the Aegean: a Conspectus." In: Rehak, ed. 1995: 151-211.
1996Review article of Pini, ed. 1994 & 1995, and Ferioli & Fiandra 1993 in AJA 100 (1996) 161-65.
1996Review of Wingerath 1995, in AJA 100 (1996) 810-11.
1999 "Glass Seals and 'Look-alike' Seals." In: Betancourt et al., eds. 1999, 3: 953-957.
1999 "The Cretan Hieroglyphic Script: A Review Article." Minos 31-32 (1996-1997): 379-400.
2000 "A Conservative Tradition for Procession Iconography." JPR 14: 52 (abstract).
2000 "The Spectacle Eyes Group: Continuity and Innovation for the First Mycenaean Administration at Knossos." In: Müller 2000: 347-60.
2007 "Appendix J. Two Sealstones from Early Cycladic Contexts." In: Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos 1974-77, edited by Colin Renfrew (with Neil Brodie, Christine Morris, and Chris Scarre, co-eds.; British School at Athens Supplementary volume 42), 455. London: British School at Athens.
2010a"Mycenaean Seals and Sealings." In: The Oxford Handbook of Bronze Age Archaeology of the Aegean, edited by Eric H. Cline, "Chapter 25," 329-339. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2010b"Attributing Aegean Seals: Looking Back, Glancing Ahead," CMS Beiheft 8, pp. 413-24
2013Review of The Middle Minoan Three-Sided Soft Stone Prism (CMS Beiheft 9), 2 vols., by Maria Anastasiadou. Gnomon 85 (2013) 49-60.

Yule, P.
1985Review of Zazoff 1983 (CMS Beiheft 4: Die antiken Gemmen), in AJA 89 (1985) 709-10.

B. Thematic Index

I. Primary Sources for Aegean Glyptic in the Bronze Age


Berges 2002: Sommerville collection at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia

Dakoronia, et al., eds. 1996. CMS 5 Suppl. 2

Gill et al. 2002. CMS II.8, 1 & 2

Maskant-Kleibrink 1980. "The Velsen Gems."

Müller & Pini, eds. 1999. CMS II, 6

Pini ed. 1993. CMS 5, Suppl. 1B

Pini ed. 2004. CMS 5, Suppl. 3.1

Excavation Reports

Korres 1991(1993): Messenia

Dimopoulou 2000: Poros-Katsambas

II. Articles or Books Primarily Concerning Special Aspects of Aegean Bronze Age Glyptic


Müller, ed. 1995. CMS Beiheft 5


Classes, arranged by Materials, Shapes and Style

Abrassart 2000: MM prisms

Karytinos 2000: animal-shaped seals from Archanes

Müller 2005: gold rings

Müller 2006: Lapis lacedaemonius seals

MacGillivray 2005: gold rings

Molchanov 1989: sphragistic formulae

Pini 1998: gold rings

Pini 1999: glass seals

Pini 2006: MM II soft stone seals

Sbonias 1995: EM seals

Weingarten 2005: EM seals

Younger 1993: MM III-LM I seals

Younger 1999: glass seals

Younger 2000: Spectacle Eyes group

Craftsmen and Workshops

Dickers 2001: LM soft stone seals

Sbonias 2000: EM seals


Karnava 2000: archives of seals

Karytinos 2000: seals from Archanes-Phourni

Foreign Relations

Aruz 1998: Aegean and the Near East stamp and cylinder seals

Aruz 1999: Aegean and the Near East seals

Aruz 2005: travelling seals

Smith 2003: international style

Weingarten 1992 & 1994: Aegean and Anatolian sealing systems

Weingarten 1996: Aegean and Cypriot seals

Forgeries under Discussion

Ward 1990 (#38: lentoid with an octopus [probably Sangiorgi])
Pini 1998: Ring of Nestor

General Betts 1997

Betts & Ward 1993

Galanakis 2005

Müller, ed. 2000: CMS Beiheft 6

Niemeier 1997

Pini, ed. 1989: CMS Beiheft 3

Pini 1992: terminology

Pini 1996

Iconography Alexandri 1999: gods and heroes

Aruz 1994

Bloedow 1992: goats

Crowley 1999: originality

Drakaki 2007: recumbent bulls

Galanakis 2007: "goddess from beyond the sea"

German 2000: human body, eroticism

Jung 1997: people

Kandeler 1998: silphion

Kopcke 1999: men

Kyriakidis 2005 & 2008: floating objects

Kyriakidis 1997: nudity

Müller 2000: Master of lions

Palikisianos 1996: religion

Papatsaroucha 2005: the "double object"

Papatsaroucha 2000 & 2001: sanctuaries

Pini 1999: portraits

Pini 2000: recumbent bulls

Pini 2000: narrative

Pini 2007: architecture

Sansone 1988: Ta-urt

Tsagkarake 2006: people

van Effenterre, Henri and Micheline 1992: time

Wedde 2004: processions

Weingarten: 1989 a & b

Weingarten 2003: weave patterns

Wohlfeil 1997: general

Individual Seals, Rings, Sealings, Pottery Impressions

CMS I, no. 17 Ulanowska 1993
CMS I, no. 167Palaiologou 1995
CMS I, no. 223 Rehak 1994
CMS I, no. 293Dyczek 1991
CMS I, no. 425; CHIC #310Woudhuizen 2002
CMS II.1, no. 419Weingarten 1991d (not from Mallia, Chrysolakkos but from the Dépot hiéroglyphique)
CMS II.3, no. 56Rehak 2000: the man wears a sealstone
CMS II.3, nos. 133-136 Kanta 1980, 43: young individual: red sard pendant (bull's head), 2 small ivory male figurines (pins?), 4 seals, 2 amber spherical beads, amygdaloid bead of sard, silver bronze knife
CMS II.3, no. 276Kanta 1980, 186: 2 glass amygdaloid beads, jasper seal
CMS II.4, nos. 157-159Kanta 1980, 47: male skeleton in pit in dromos: 3 seals; dog sacrifice? in dromos
CMS II.4, nos. 160-161Kanta 1980, 47: 3 sarcophagoi; in sarcophagus 2: a seal; in sarcophagus 3: a seal; nearby: hoard of bronzes (tankard, sword w/ ivory handle, 2 razors, ladle, knife)
CMS II.5Fiandra 1994 & 2006; Foster 2006; Militello 2000
CMS II.6Palaima 1994
CMS II.6 nos. 19 [AT] & 260 [Sk]= sealing from Akrotiri, Thera, Delta D18 (Ergon 1995, 52-54, figs. 37-38; AR 1995-96, 37; Weingarten 1997: 787)
CMS II.6, nos. 234 & 235 Rehak & Younger 1995: Pyrgos roundel
CMS II.7, nos. 170 & 171Schlager 1996
CMS II.7, no. 218 Schlager 2000
CMS II.8, pp. 113-14Knossos, sealings from the Temple Repositories: Panagiotaki 1995
CMS II.8, p. 123Knossos, sealings from the Olive Press Room: Panagiotaki 1993
CMS II.8, no. 256Moss 2000
CMS V, nos. 35-149Renard 2001; Weingarten 1997 & 2000
CMS V nos. 426-441Wilkie 1992a: 264-68.
CMS V nos. 442-447Wilkie 1992b: 625-26.
CMS V nos. 594 & 595Shear 199? (Panagia Houses 41, 125-6): Mycenae Panagia House II rm 15, floor deposit (LH III B): sealings 208 & 209 found with hydria 134; sealing 207 found near SJ 123): sealing 209: (Ls) Master of agrimia (the two flank upside down in PT 31B); sealing 207 & 208: (As) bull-leaping R, with leaper supine to R ab and bel
CMS V Suppl. 1A no. 69Onassoglou 1989
CMS V Supp. 1A, no. 372Papadakis 1988
CMS V Suppl. 1B, nos. 68-70Demakopoulou 1990
CMS V Supp. 1B, nos. 35 & 36Younger 2007
CMS V Suppl. 1B, nos. 106-109:Davis 1992: 740
CMS V Suppl. 1B, no. 135Pini 1998, views of the hoop
CMS V Suppl. 1B, nos. 326 & 328Davis 1992: 723-24
CMS V Suppl. 1B, nos. 349-351Davis 1992: 715
CMS V Suppl. 1B, no. 446Baziou-Eustathiou 1985
CMS V Supp. 2Deger-Jalkotzy 2000; Schiering 2000
CMS V Supp. 3B, nos. 360-365Weingarten 2000
CMS V Supp. 3B, nos. 243-47Aidonia: Demakopoulou, ed. 1996; Howland 1997; Krystalli-Bosti 1989
CMS X no. 120Mühlestein 1958
CMS X 146Ward 1990, no. #33
CMS X 160Ward 1990, no. #35
CMS X 164 & 165Ward 1990, nos. #34 & #37

Sealings & Impressed Pottery
LNChios: Hood 1982: 627 fig. 283.7: clay sealing
EM III/MM IAPalaikastro, below building 7: BSA 87 (1992) 131 fig. 9.7: stamped weight
EM III-MM IKadmos 29 (1990) 103 no. 24, fig. 2, pl. 2: Protopalatial impressed cup handle, 5 elliptical forms in a circular arrangement
EM IIIKato Syme: Ergon 1993, fig. 101: sealing impressed by a Parading Lions stamp
EBAChios, Emborio: Davis 1992: 726: sealing
EH IIKathili, Argolid, surface find: Forsén 1992: 24: impressed terracotta hearth (EH II?)
MM IIAKnossos, South House: AR 39 (1992-1993): 68: 2 sealings
MM IIArkhanes, Phournoi, Bldg 18: Ergon 1987, fig. 151: sealing impressed by a Mallia Workshop prism: 2 men flank 2 amphorae in the center.
MM IIBPetras: Tsipopoulou & Hallager 1996a & b; Tsipopoulou 1998; Tsipopoulou e-mail message to AegeaNet 13 August 1997; Tsipopoulou & Hallager 2010: some 70 impressed noduli, crescents, and 2-hole hanging nodules
MM II-LM IPseira Bldg DA: AR 39 (1992-1993):79: as temper in the roof matrix, 10 sealings and sealing fragments [2 with ship representations]
LM IKhania: Andreadaki-Vlasaki and Hallager 2007: KH Wc 2123 impressed by a lentoid 9 times:
LM III AKN Ws 1707: Duhoux 1972
LM III A2Mallia, Quartier Nu X7 (LM III A2[?], destruction level): AR 1991, 65: sealed stirrup jar
MHpetschaft with circles, from Tiryns (AR 55, 2008-9, 24 fig. 33)
LM III A2Kommos: AR 1991, 61: "sealing of a type known to date only at Knossos at the beginning of LM III A2"
LM IAAkrotiri, Thera, Delta, D18: Ergon 1995, 52-54, figs. 37-38; AR 1995-96, 37; Weingarten 1997: 787; now on display in the Prehistoric Museum of Thera: "document sealings impressed by a gold ring (bull-leaping right; chariot right = CMS II, 6 nos. 19 [AT] & 260 [Sk]), and by an amygdaloi (2 griffins run)
LH III BMidea (exc. no. 91 YbL5 096): Walberg 1991: a: CYPERUS; b: RO-SO; c: impression??
LH III BMY WT 700: Taylour 1959: two-hole hanging nodule incised with *190.
LH III BPY Wr 1374: Blegen 1959: obverse: PU2-*35-*19?; reverse: PU+TELA

Miscellaneous Aegean Seals
LN pintaderaThessaly: Giannopoulos 1915: 97 pl. A' no. 13
LN pintaderaTharrounia, Euboea : BSA 87 (1992) 83 fig. 29a-b: bone stamp

EBAChios: Hood 1982: 626-7, figs. 283.5 & 6: terracotta stamps
EBAChios, Emborio: Davis 1992: 726: terracotta stamp seal
EB IIfoot amulet/seal from the Argolis: Fors&eacuten & Fors&eacuten 1992
EBA IIISkyros: Theochari et al. 1993: conical steatite stamp with drilled holes on the sides near the face for inlays; face has 4 dotted circles (D. ~3.2; H. pres. ~ 4.0)
EH IIAigion (Achaia): AR 1991, 21: "EH bone seal in the Lerna style"
EH IIPetri (Nemea): Kostoula 2000
EH IITsoungiza lead seal: Pullen 1994
EM IIMallia Palace: AR 1990-1, 73: seal impression (green clay) with a cruciform geometric motive
EM IIIKristos Kainourgiou tholos (EM II-III context): ArchDelt38 B2 (1983) 355, pl. 153 e-st: HM 2988 & 3015 conical stamps; HM 3014 ivory stamp cylinder (Parading Lions/Spiral Complex)
EM III/MM IALasithi prism: Davaras 1988
EMWard 1990 (#27: bone cylinder with floral designs; #28: bone ring with lines; #29 ivory animal-foreparts (YS 33c) with unknown design)
MM I-IIKommos: Shaw & Shaw 1991: steatite stamp (YS 31h) from an early MM house: hatching
MM I-IIWard 1990 (#30: theriomorph (sleeping dog) of "white steatite" with a Border-Leaf panel design; #31: theriomorph (bee?) of "white steatite" with S-spiral with two V-spurs; #32: Mallia 3-sided prism [a: a sitting boy; b: agrimi head; c: trussed calf])
MM IIMochlos street (LM I context): Hesperia 61 (1992) 439, pl. 101b: 4-sided prism with rectangular faces, steatite with yellow splotches: a) ship to left, with branch? in stern; b-d) dots at edges
MM IIMalia workshop seals: Poursat & Papatsarouha 2000
MM IIMonastiraki sealings: Godart et al. 2000
MM IIPalaikastro: MacGillivray & Sackett 1991: 144; fig. 20: plano-convex Button (Siteia Mus. PK 90/2240: YS 20; Ladder on the ridge) of green-black steatite (MM II context)
MM II-IIIFaure 2003 (NMA 8915; CHIC #294)
MM III-LM IIouktas: Karetsou 2005
LH IIVapheio: Bergamasco 2001
LH III A-BKato Maurolophos (So. Thessaly): AR 1991, 38: large Mycenaean ChT (LH III A1-B) with sealstones (Deltion 39 Chr 140)
LH III A1Thebes (LH IIA-B, III A1 context): BCH 114 (1990) 764 (Chronique): "superb" seal with heraldic lions, birds, bucranium & palms
LH III B-COlympos (central Macedonia): AR 39 (1992-1993): Mycenaean cemetery of 8 cist tombs: sealstones over the chest of, apparently, a woman.
LH III B2Mycenae Panagia House area: Shear 199? (Panagia Houses 118, unstratified): fluorite lentoid (broken) with calf in PT 6, R; steatite lentoid (broken) with quadruped in PT 2, R; and steatite amygdaloid with 2 addorsed bucrania
LH III B2Midea, rooms by W gate (LH III B2 context): AR 1991, 213 fig. 10, & Demakopoulou et al. 1994, figs. 43-44: 6 seals (4 of steatite, 1 of jasper, 1 agate cushion with Minotaur attacked by a Fish-Monster, figure-8 shield in back & above.

Midea, room XIV in the west part of the building complex near the West Gate (LH III B:2 late, earthquake destruction): haematite lentoid: "frontal human face flanked by 2 arms with forearms and hands suspended... surrounded by a snake" (AR 54, 2007-8, 29 fig. 35)

Midea: cylinder of "black stone" (AR 55, 2008-9, 23 fig. 32): goats in PT 2

LH III BBeylerbi, Pylos Regional Area Project: AR 39 (1992-1993), figs. 21-22: steatite lentoid with a bull [not "goat" as published; Mainland Popular Group] in PT 1A, L
LH III BEuboia: Papavasileiou 19??: pl. IE' no. 2: steatite lentoid (Mainland Popular Group)
LH III BGla, Bldg M (N bldg of the E wing): AR 1990-1, 34: "fine" seal; Iakovidis 1997
LH III BMycenae sealings: Müller et al. 1998
LH III BPylos sealings: Flouda 2000; Pini 1997
LH III BPylos seals: Dyczek 1992;
LH III BThebes, 6 seals: Andrikou 2003
LH III BThebes: Killen 1992 & 1994; Palaima 2000; Sergent 1997
LH III BZygouries: Blegen 1928: 207 fig. 198: steatite lentoid (Mainland Popular Group)
LH III CMitrou: lentoid of steatite (AR 55, 2008-9, 53 fig. 86)
LH IIIPoros, Kephallonia: e-mail message from Olga Ladopoulou-Palaggia (21 April 1994) on AegeaNet: tholos tomb ("tomb of Odysseus") excavated in 1992
LH IIIPsara, Archonitki: Davis 1992: 727: cylinder seal

LM I A-III A2Kommos: Shaw & Shaw 1991: sepentine lentoid of serpentine from House X, rm 6 (LM IA-LM III A2 abandonment): bird (Cretan Popular) flies right
LM I AAkrotiri, Thera, Xeste 3: BCH 1991/1992, PAGE?
LM I AKommos Bldg Gallery P2 (LM IA context): Shaw & Shaw 1993a: 154 (pyramidal stamp (pl. 39a; unperforated) with a P design)
LM I AKommos Bldg X, room 2 (LM IA context): Shaw & Shaw 1993: 143-47 (schist "bead seal" (pl. 22d): concentric centered circles; and a black steatite cushion seal (pl. 22e): lines); & pl. 20b (pyramidal stamp with hatching)
LM I BMochlos Island, Building C (LM IB context?): Soles 1991: cornelian lentoid (D. ~1.8): agrimi in PT 10A, L; pica in back (Cut Style); serpentine cushion: agrimi in PT 1A, R; pica in back (Cretan Popular; also see Hesperia 61 (1992) 432, fig. 10 pl. 101a); SH vertical; unfinished lentoid
LM IKhania: Hallager 2002

Gavdos Katalymata: a talismanic in agate (boat), discoid with cross and hatching (AR 55, 2008-9, 101)

LM IKommos Bldg X, room 1: Shaw 1993b: amygdaloid of cornelian ("Marine Schools") with 2 dolphins tête-bêche clockwise, star/sea anemone in the center, mountguides above & below, SH horizontal
LM IPoros ring: Dimopoulou & Rethemiotakis 2000
LM ISyme "Runner's Ring": Lebessi et al. 2004
LM IThera sealings: Doumas 2000
LM III A/BStavros Galias Tb 2: Kanta 1980, 89: 3 seals.
LM III A1Palaikastro building 7 room 6 (LM III A1 context): BSA 87 (1992) 140 fig. 18: steatite cushion (?)
LM III A2-BMochlos chamber tombs: Soles 1994: lentoid of dark steatite, conical back ["Armenoi Group"] with a lion in PT 2, R, erased hindquarters in front, and column behind; lentoid of dark steatite, conical back ["Armenoi Group"], with a sphinx in PT 10A, R
LM III AGoudhies ChT: Kanta 1980, 113.
LM III AKommos Bldg X, room room 7 (LM IIIA context): Shaw & Shaw 1993a : 152 (lentoid (pl. 25b) with CP bird-woman (SH horizontal) [also reported in AR 1991, 61], and n. 59, dated late (pace: Weingarten Zakro Master 111-12)
LM III AKyparissi, Herakleiou: Rethemiotakis 1987: pl. 7.4: lentoid with dog left attacking lion right in PT 43; style looks like a mix of Spectacles & Cut-Style -- no modeling whatsoever
LM III BChania, unrobbed ChT (LM III B) with single burial: AR 1991, 70: 9 sealstones, 29 pots, one bronze vessel, bronze weapons, gold & silver beads and ornaments, and beads of other materials. "The seals seem to be earlier (LM III A) than the pottery." (Deltion 39, Chr 299-301)
LM III BKyparissi Temenous: AR 39 (1992-1993): 71: chamber tomb with burials on biers, a Cypriot bowl, gold jewelry, and a sealstone
LM III A-BPakhyammos-Kateri Koumos (near Seager's villa) ChT (LM III A2 & B): Kanta 1980, 144: sarcophagus (1 skeleton) containing a sard seal with bird.
LM III A-B earlyKnossos sealings: Popham 1997; Weingarten 1994 & 1997
LM III A-B earlyKnossos Wm sealings: Firth 2002-2003; Killen 2002-2203
LM III A-CArmeni: Dickers 1994
LM IIIB-CAdromyloi-Kantemi Kephali ChT: Kanta 1980, 185: gold ring with elliptical bezel, seal
LM IIIB-CArkhanes-Katsoprinias Tb: Kanta 1980, 32: 6 burials (2 in sarcs): gold ring, 4 seals
LM IIIB-CAvgo-Peponas, pithos burial: Kanta 1980, 146: prism seal, lentoid seal, signet ring
LM IIIB-CPraesos-Photoula tholos: Kanta 1980, 181: burial(s?) lowered from the opened capstone; floor of tholos had a sarcophagus with cremation burial, accompanied by a gold ring, ivory handle with 4 gold nails, fragment of gold plaque decorated with argonauts
LM IIIBPoros settlement, house: Kanta 1980, 26: unfinished seal
LM"Idaean Cave": Praktika 1984, 593 pl. 251d (CP lentoid of serpentine? [cf., CMS VIII, no. 124] with lion in PT 1A, L, erased quadruped foreleg infr, column capital ab, & Branch 3 bel)
LMMessenia, Ellenika ChT: AR 1990-1, 32: ring with bull-leaping scene

Rings of Nestor, Minos

Minos: Beckmann 2003; Dimopoulou & Rethmiotakis 2004

Ward collection (see LH I-III, Aidonia; and CMS V Supp. 3B, nos. 243-47, above)
Anonymous 1993
Brysac 1996
Betts 1993b (gold ring with horse-drawn chariot; gold ring with two women; steatite lentoid with couchant bull; agate lentoid with sow and pig/boar; amethyst scaraboid with a) man and griffin, b) flying bird, c) woman to R; gold jewelry including unengraved rings & beads)
Ward 1990 (#36: soft-stone lentoid with a bull en face [Spectacle-Eyes group])

Administration Müller 2006

Palaima 1996

Perna 2005, 2006

Hieroglyphic seals: Poursat 1994 & 2000

Schoep 1997 & 2004

Knossos: Weingarten 1994

Palaikastro: Weingarten 2006

Hieroglyphic seals: Younger 1999

Classes dentine rings: Pini 1992

Minoan scarabs and scarabids: Phillips 2004

"Neolithic Stamps": Skeates 2007

Foreign Relations Phaistos & Egyptian sealings: Foster 2000

Cretan & Egyptian seals: Foster 2000

Materials Ferrence 2007: ivory



Seal Use general: Aruz 1997; Krzyszkowska 2006; Thomas 2000

fold-over nodules: Hallager 2005

impressed roundels: Hallager 1989

impressed stoppers: Hallager & Hallager 2007

impressed weights

Weingarten 2000

LB III seal use: Hallager 2005

sealing: Aruz 2005 "Sealing beyond the Storeroom Door"

"look-alike" seals: Pini 2006; Younger 1999

seals in tombs: Hallager 2000; Karytinos 1998

seals in trade: Hussein 2008; Pini 2005

Signs on Seals Hieroglyphic: Olivier 2000; Orgeolet 2001; Poursat 2000; Younger 1999

Style Thomas 2000

Survivals 19th c. views of seals: Krzyszkowska 2000

Techniques general: Boardman 2003

experiments with bow-drilling: Müller 2000

re-engraved seals: Pini 2000

III. Reviews

IV. Other Relevant Aegean Bronze Age Topics


EIKON: Laffineur & Crowley, eds. 1992

EMPORIA: Laffineur & Greco, eds. 2005

TEXNH: Laffineur & Betancourt, eds. 1997

"Review of Aegean Prehistory VII: Neopalatial, Final Palatial, and Postpalatial Crete": Rehak & Younger 1998/2001

Administration general: Brosius, ed. 2003; De Miro et al., eds. 1996; Ferioli & Fiandra 1989; Ferioli et al. 1994 & 2000; Perna 2000 & 2001

pre-seal administration: Hallager 2004

Monastiraki: Kanta & Tzigounaki 2000

Lasithi & Malia-Lasithi state: Betancourt 2007




Craftsmen & Workshops artists & sponsors: Shaw 1997

bow-lathe: Simpson 1999

drilling: Betts 1989

emery at Knossos: Evely 1988a


Foreign Relations cultural exchange: Aruz 2000

travelling seals: Krzyszkowska 2005; Müller 2005


Iconography agrimia Bloedow 2001

bull games: Younger 1995

drawings on tablets: Palaima 1992 (Mycenaean); Ünal 1989 (Hittite)

Kamares Ware and south Cretan seals: Weng 2001

processions: Younger 2000

rulership and power: Younger 1995

seals and other art forms: Younger 1995

EM iconography: Sbonias 1999


Calinescu 1996

Younger 1992

Jewelry Moulds
Midea, rooms by W gate (LH III B2 context): AR 1991, 213: a steatite mould, along with "much debitage, indicates the presence of workshops for jewelry in various materials."

Unengraved Rings
LH II A: Vapheio tholos cist (LH IIA context): Pini 1998, fig. 13: cloisoné ring NMA 1803
LH III: Koukaki: Pini 1998; & Pantelidou 19??: 108 no. 12, pl. 49 b-g: ring (NMA 7743), L bezel 1.79, W. bezel 1.15, inner D. hoop 1.59-1.79
LH: Prostovitsa, Achaia: Papdopoulos 1996?, pl. 109: gold ring cup with circular bezel (empty), with appliqué wave of gold on hoop flanked by 2 rows of granules; a row of granules encircles the cup
LM III A-B: Pakhyammos 1951 Tb (LM IIIA2-B early) at Alatsomouri: Kanta 1980, 143: round pyxis containing beads, & 2 plain gold rings
LM III C: Mouliana Th. B: Kanta 1980, 176: 1st skeleton lay on the floor on sand & pebbles; 2nd skeleton in sarcophagus with bronze disks, 2 swords, 2 spearheads, gold ring, 2 pieces of ivory, piece of iron, gold face-mask
LM III C: Mouliana-Vourlia: Kanta 1980, 176: gold ring bought
LM IIIC-Geometric: Athanatoi ChT 2: Kanta 1980, 17: silver ring on one finger


V. The Glyptic of Other Cultures, Other Times


Asia Minor Anatolian seals in America: Beckman 1989

Alisar Höyük: Gorny 1993

Arslantepe-Malatya: Frangipane 1994

Bogazköy: Boehmer & Güterbock 1987

Hittite seal from Megiddo: Singer 1995

Kaman-Kalehöyük: Omura 1996

Karahöyük: Boehmer 1996

Yuksel Erimtan collection: Konuk, Koray. 2000


Cyprus cylinders: Collon 1990; Hadjisavvas 2001; Porada 1992

Cypriot and 'Cypro-aegean' seals: Aruz 1997

LC seals: Merrillees 1989 & 2000; Pini 1992; Smith 1993

seal impressions: Webb & Frankel 1994

seal-cutter's workshop at Enkomi: Merrillees 2006

seals and economy: Webb 2002

seals and writing: Powell 2002; Smith 2002 & 2002

stamp-seals: Reyes 2001, 2002, & 2005

Egypt scarabs: Bietak & Czerny, eds. 2004; Cline 1989; Ward 1994 & 2003

seal cutter, representation: Merrillees 2006

sealings: Foster 2000 (from Shalfak); Foster 2001 (from Mirgissa)

stamp-seal amulets: Münger 2003

Middle Kingdom seals and administration: Smith 2001; von Pilgrim 2001

Near East British Museum, Catalogue of the Western Asiatic Seals in the British Museum, Cylinder Seals
  • Wiseman, D.J.: I: Pre-Akkadian -- out of print
  • Collon, Dominique: II: Akkadian, Post-Akkadian and Ur III -- out of print
  • Collon, Dominique: III: Isin-Larsa and Old Babylonian -- available
  • Porada, Edith, and Dominique Collon: IV: Second Millennium B.C., Other than Old Babylonian -- in preparation
  • Collon, Dominique: V: Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Periods, with an analysis and discussion of materials by Margaret Sax -- available
  • Merrillees, P.H.: VI: Pre-Achaemenid and Achaemenid -- in preparation

  • administration: Amiet 1994 (Uruk and Susa); Hudson & Wunsch, eds. 2004

    cylinders: Amiet 1995 (Ras Shamra); Collon 2000 (Syrian, the Thera frescoes); Sax & Meeks 1995, Sax & Middleton 1992, Sax et al. 1998 (quartz, Mesopotamian)

    general: Collon ed. 1997; Klengel-Brandt, ed. 1997

    iconography: Eder 1994 (athletics); Pittman 1994 (Mesopotamia)

    scarabs: Richards 1992 (MBA-LBA, Pella, Jordan)

    seal impressions: Archi 1993 (el-Quitar/Til Abnu, Syria); Greenberg, Raphael 2001 (EBA II-III Palestinian); Joffe 2001 (EBA, Jezreel Valley); Lapp 1995 (EBA, Dead Sea); Naster 1983 (Warka); Stein 1993 (Silwa-Tessup)

    sealings: Ferioli & Fiandra 1994 (Arslantepe); Rothman 1994 (Tepe Gawra)

    seals and rings: Fauduet 1978 (India)

    seals and sealings: Ben-Shlomo 2006 (Philistia); Ben-Tor 1994 (Tel Qashish); Esin 1994 (Degirmentepe)

    seals: Aruz 1992 (Tell Esh Sheikh); Behm-Blancke 1993 (east Taurus); Buchanan & Moorey 1988 (Ashmolean Museum); Gal 1994 (Phoenician bronze seal from Hurbat Rosh Zayit); Garfinkel et al. 1992 (LN, Herzliya); Keel 1994 & 1995, Keel & Schroer 1985, Keel et al. 1989 (Palestine); Maxwell-Stuart 1980; Moller 1992 (Danish collection); Sarianidi 1994 (Bacria & Margiana); Stern 1980 (Tel Dor)

    Foreign Seals in Bronze Age Greece Near Eastern cylinder seals: Davaras & Soles 1997 (from Mochlos & Crete); Porada 1981/1982 (from Thebes); Hesperia 61 (1992) 423

    Mitannian faience cylinders: Hood 1982 (Chios)

    Greece, Post-Bronze Age
    Pantos 1993: Re: the International Congress "Archives, Seals and Sealings in the Hellenistic World"

    LM III C-Geometric seal: Kavousi tholos: Kanta 1980, 145: 19 vases & 3 seals (ArchDelt 1954)
    Classical: AR 1991, 55: Delos, SW of the Sanctuary of Promachon, seals fallen from upper storey similar to those from the House of the Seals: "A total of 108 seals have now been recovered from that House, all individual but of known types." (Praktika 1987, 212-6; 1988, 178-183); Boardman 1997; Nikulina 1981; Ridgway 2000 (Pithekoussai); Scerbakova 1998 (Chersonese); Schachner & Meriç 2000 (Ionia)
    Hellenistic: Phaklares 1983: 218-20 & 237: pottery stamps
    Byzantine: Seibt Date

    Archaic: Tracey 1986: ring, probably from the Argive Heraeum, gives the earliest Argive text: Awriknídas anétheke thioî Leuqoléoi Érai

    Sealings & Impressions
    Archaic: Paros, Sanctuary of Athena (NE corner): Ergon 1986, 111, pl. 86: 7 intact, early Archaic sealings impressed by an amygdaloid carrying a standing human figure

    Late Classical: Khristodoulopoulou-Proike 1977: late IVth cent. B.C. ringstone's clay impression used as a love-phylaktery; the ringstone was engraved with a man and women embracing and inscribed with "ékho te kai philó Aristotéle" ("I've got you and I love you, Aristotle"); it is not out of the question that the pair are the philosopher Aristotle and his mistress, eventually his wife, Herpyllida.

    Seal Impressions on Papyri
    Hunt, A.S., and C.C. Edgar, Select Papyri, in 4 vols. Cambridge: Harvard UP 1970.
    • vol. 1, no. 82: P. Eleph. 2, 11. 1-18 (284 BCE): An early Ptolemaic will: On the reverse, names and seals of the five principals and the six witnesses.
    • vol. 1, no. 74: P. Pyl. 174: Receipt for repyment of a loan (112 CE): on the reverse, a red stamp showing head and shoulders of the Emperor surrounded by the inscription in 2 circle: (étous) is Autokratoros Kaisaros Neroua Traianou Sebastou Germanikou Dakikou (Year 16 of the Emperor Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus).
    • vol. 1, no. 84: P. Oxy. 494 (156-65 CE): Will: "I, the aforesaid Acusilaus son of Dius, have made this will, the whole body of which is in my own writing, with all the above provisions. I am 48 years of age, with a scar on the right foot, and my seal (sphragis) is an image of Thonis. I, Didymus son of Onnophis also called Chaeremon son of Herodes, of Oxyrhynchus, one of the witnesses to the above will, have recognized my seal being an imprint of a Hermes, and I sealed (esphragisa) with the said seal. I, Asclepiades son of eudaemon son of Asclepiades, of Oxyrhynchus, another of the witnesses to the above will, have recognized my seal being an imprint of a Sarapis, and I sealed with the said seal. I, Didymus son of Diymus son of Enthesmos, agoranomos of Oxyrhynchus, another of the witnesses to the said will, have recognized my seal being an imprint of an Apollo, and I sealed with the said seal. I, Asclepiades son of Asclepiades son of Pausirion of the said city, have recognized my seal being an imprint of a Heracles, and I sealed with the said seal

    Byzantine seals (see also section D, below): Besevliev 1981; Laurent 1981

    Roman "combination-gem": Henig 1980

    gems: Krug 1980 (Germany)

    gold ring and ringstone: Maaskant-Kleibrink 1980 (Dorestad, Hoogstraat)

    ring stones: Coeuret & Guiraud 1980 (Pouillé, Loir-et-Cher); Dembski 1979 (Traismauer, Austria); Henig 1980 (Corbridge), Henig 1980 (Blackfriars, London)

    stamped pottery: Ettlinger 1975-1978 (Switzerland)

    Near East
    Sax et al. 1998: engraving Mesopotamian cylinder seals
    on quartz (Mohs 7) seals: 4 basic techniques
  • micro-chipping (tool w/ sharp hard point)
  • filing (tool w/ straight edge)
  • wheel-cutting - on axis parallel to seal face
  • drilling - perpendicular to seal face
  • no evidence of wheel cutting before Old Babylonian period
    emery (Al2O3; hardness 9): 500 blocks found at LB Ras Ibn Hani, Syria

    Carthaginian: Berges 1995
    Approximately 4,000 clay seals (originally unfired, and burnt by the destruction of 146 BC) were excavated; originally the VIth-Vth century BCE archive of a temple estate, the seals bear the imprints of scarabs of Thutmosis III, "as well as impressions of (Western) Greek seal stones and rings, which testify to an early and lasting Hellenization of Punic Carthage."

    Arabian Gulf, a seal with Indus Valley connections: Caspers 1983

    VI. General Articles on Materials, Methods & Techniques

    "Adaptations of Egyptian Stone Vessels": Warren 1997

    La Crète myc&eacutenienne: Driessen & Farnoux, eds. 1997

    "The Distribution of Sealings and Seals in Antiquity": Laurito 2000 MELETEMATA: Betancourt et al., eds. 1999

    Pepragmena H' Diethnous Kritologikou Synedriou: Karetsou et al., eds. 2000

    "Tokens": Schmandt-Besserat 1994

    Responses to papers in Ferioli et al. 1994

    Esin 1994 (Marcella Frangipane)
    Fissore, Gian Giacomo. 1994 (Denise Schmandt-Besserat)
    Frangipane, Marcella. 1994 (Pierre Amiet)
    Palaima, Thomas. 1994 (Gian Giacomo Fissore)
    Pittman, Holly. 1994 (Mitchell S. Rothman)
    Poursat, Jean-Claude. 1994 (Judith Weingarten)
    Rothman, Mitchell S. 1994 (Ufuk Esin)
    Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. 1994 (Jean-Claude Poursat)
    Weingarten, Judith. 1994 (Holly Pitman)

    VII. Relevant Bibliographies & Journals

    C. Topographical Index

    D. Seal & Bead Websites & Email Addresses

    King's College London. Prosopography of the Byzantine World. Seal studies

    Society of Bead Researchers

    Arachne, images from the University of Cologne and the German Archaeological Institute
    all seals published in the CMS (for both web access sites, create an account and log in for best results)

    Click to go back to:

    A. Bibliography, arranged by author.
    I. Volumes of the CMS
    II. Books & Articles
    B. Thematic Index
    I. Primary Sources for Aegean Glyptic in the Bronze Age
    II. Articles or Books Primarily Concerning Special Aspects of Aegean Bronze Age Glyptic
    III. Reviews
    IV. Other Relevant Aegean Bronze Age Topics
    V. The Glyptic of Other Cultures, Other Times
    VI. General Articles on Materials, Methods & Techniques
    VII. Relevant Bibliographies & Journals
    C. Topographical Index
    D. Seal Websites & Email Addresses
    E. Scholar's Websites & Email Addresses

    Email additions and corrections to: John Younger