Citation Formats for Bibliographies and Notes

http://people.ku.edu/~jyounger/fn+bibformats.html


last update: 30 May 2011


Preliminaries



Table of Contents


Bibliography Citations


Notes
  • In-Text
  • Footnotes & Endnotes


    Popular & Scholarly Magazine/Journal Titles for Classical & Near Eastern & Egyptian archaeology



    Bibliography Citations

    Notes:
    A bibliography occurs at the end of the paper.

    It should list, alphabetically by author's last name, all the books & articles cited in footnotes/endnotes in the paper. A "subject bibliography" lists all books & articles relevant to the subject, regardless whether they've been cited in the paper or not.


    General Formats for the Bibliography

    Books
    FORMAT: Last name, First name. Year. Title. Place of publication: publisher.

    EXAMPLE: Anderson, W.D. 1994. Music and Musicians in Ancient Greece. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.


    Articles in journals
    FORMAT: Last name, First name. Year. "Title," Journal vol.: p.-p.

    EXAMPLE: Aravantinos, V. 1996. "New Archaeological and Archival Discoveries at Mycenaean Thebes," Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 41: 135-36.


    Articles in books and series
    FORMAT: Last name, First name. Year. "Title." In: Title, edited by First name last name, p.-p. Place of publication: publisher.

    EXAMPLE: Cameron, M.A.S. 1978. "Theoretical Interrelations among Theran, Cretan and Mainland Frescoes." In: Thera and the Aegean World, edited by C. Doumas, vol. 1: 579-92. London: The Thera Foundation.
    EXAMPLE: Rehak, P. 1995. "The Use and Destruction of Minoan Stone Bull's Head Rhyta." In: Politeia (Aegeaeum 12), edited by R. Laffineur and W.-D. Niemeier, 435-60. Liège: Université de Liège.


    Multiple authors
    Bibliographical entry: Last name, first name, and first name last name, etc. For example: Rehak, Paul, and John G. Younger.
    Chapters in books edited by multiple authors, see Rehak 1995, above.


    Internet Sources (Web Sites, E-mail Messages, and Articles Retrieved from Databases)
    Notes:
    1) E-mail messages and web sites are located in a medium that is part of a federally funded program (FCC) and they therefore are federally protected.
    2) E-mail contributions are public and should be considered published and the contributor therefore should have full copyright protection. Obtain permission for citation before publishing an email message.

    Web Sites
    FORMAT: Last name, First name. Year (of creation or last update). "Title". URL (update: Date; accessed: Date).
    EXAMPLE: Younger, J.G. 1999. "Kapatija". http://www.people.ku.edu/~jyounger/Kapatija/ (update: 12 February 1999; accessed 14 March 2004).

    E-mail Messages
    FORMAT: Last name, First name. Year. "Subject line", an email message sent to ADDRESSEE (date).
    EXAMPLE: Gale, N. "More tin sources," an email message sent to the e-mail discussion list "AegeaNet" (26 May 1990).
    EXAMPLE: Petersen, S. "More about tin sources," a personal email message sent to J. G. Younger (27 May 1990).
    Articles Retrieved from Databases
    There are two ways of doing this:
    • ignore the fact that you are retrieving this article from a database (like JSTOR) and cite the article as if you were actually reading the print version.
    • or cite the article as coming from the database (like JSTOR)
    So, let's say you found the following on JSTOR and want to cite it:
      • F. Kolb, "Forum Article: Troy VI: A Trading Center and Commercial City?" American Journal of Archaeology 108.4 (Oct. 2004) 577-613
    You either cite it just like that, as if you found it in print,

    or you cite it by its stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40025731
      • F. Kolb, "Forum Article: Troy VI: A Trading Center and Commercial City?" American Journal of Archaeology 108.4 (Oct. 2004) 577-613 (JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40025731)

    If the database-article does not have a stable URL, then simply cite the article and the database where you found it:
      • Day, P.M., and D.E. Wilson, "Consuming Power: Kamares ware in Protopalatial Knossos," Antiquity 72.276 (June 1998) 350-59 (ProQuest Document ID: 30417974).

      • Copying the URL for the above article from the top bar results in a URL that looks like this: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=30417974&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1287082736&clientId=42567.
      • This reference only works if the reader is already logged into KU Library's database ProQuest. It is therefore useless for anyone else. It is much better to cite the article as cited above with the ProQuest Document ID number.



    Sample Bibliographical Citations

    Anderson, J.K. 1958/1959. "Old Smyrna: The Corinthian Pottery," BSA 53/54: 138-51 (JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30104461; last accessed: May 30, 2011).
    • Note: the URL for this article in the top bar (http://www.jstor.org.www2.lib.ku.edu:2048/stable/30104461) will NOT lead the reader back to this article unless she is already logged in to KU Library's JSTOR database. Any reader NOT logged in will NOT find this article.

    Anderson, W.D. 1994. Music and Musicians in Ancient Greece. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.

    Aravantinos, V. 1996. "New Archaeological and Archival Discoveries at Mycenaean Thebes," Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 41: 135-36.

    Cameron, M.A.S. 1978. "Theoretical Interrelations among Theran, Cretan and Mainland Frescoes." In: Thera and the Aegean World, edited by C. Doumas, vol. 1: 579-92. London: The Thera Foundation.

    Langdon, S., ed. 1993. From Pasture to Polis. Columbia MO: University of Missouri Press.

    Rehak, P. 1995a. "Enthroned Figures in Aegean Art and the Function of the Mycenaean Megaron," in P. Rehak, ed., 1995: 95-118.

    Rehak, P. 1995b. "The Use and Destruction of Minoan Stone Bull's Head Rhyta." In: Politeia (Aegeaeum 12), edited by R. Laffineur and W.-D. Niemeier, 435-60. Liège: Université de Liège.

    Rehak, P. 1995c. "Horses," an e-mail message sent to the e-mail discussion list "AegeaNet" (23 October 1991).

    Rehak, P. 1999. "Egypt". Website: http://people.ku.edu/~prehak/Egypt/ (update: 20 February 1999; accessed 13 August 1999; no longer online when accessed 30 May 2011).

    Rehak, P., ed. 1995. The Role of the Ruler in the Prehistoric Aegean (Aegaeum 11). Liège: Université de Liège.

    Walters, H.B. 1922. The Art of the Greeks.2 London: Methuen & Co.



    Notes

    In-Text Citations go in the text itself.
    Footnotes go at the bottom of the page.
    Endnotes go at the end of the paper.

    DO NOT MIX these styles; use only ONE in a paper!


    In-Text Citations are for citing the source of a quote or idea without any discussion; the citation always refers to a bibliography at the end.
    FORMAT: texttexttext (Author Date: page) texttexttext .
    EXAMPLE: The clay of the structure proved to be Middle Bronze Age in date (Aravantinos 1996: 135), although the structure itself should have been constructed much later, perhaps 300 years later.

    Footnotes & Endnotes (no difference in what they do, just where they go); if they refer to a bibliography, they can be abbreviated (author year: pp.) -- otherwise, they should be full, or at least full the first time they are cited (then abbreviated in further notes: e.g., Aravantinos 1996 [supra n. 1]: 137).

    A Note (foot- or end-) can
    • simply give the specific bibliographical citation for a quote or idea;
    • OR, a note can cite these sources, along with a tangential (but not completely relevant), interesting discussion of something.

    Simple bibliographical information
    FORMAT: text.1
         1. Note

    EXAMPLE with full bibliographical citation: Brothels depicted on vases can be inferred from interior scenes where women are seated and men are standing, apparently visiting.1
         1. Many vases depict men and youths visiting women in brothels: e.g., a kylix by Makron (Toledo 1972.55; E. Reeder, Pandora, Chicago: Chicago University Press 1994, pp. 183-87); and a red-figure hydria by the Leningrad Painter (Chicago Art Institute 1911.456; W.G. Moon, Midwest Collections, Iowa City: Iowa University Press 1979, fig. 97).

    EXAMPLE with Bibliography at end and abbreviated bibliographical citation in the note: Brothels depicted on vases can be inferred from interior scenes where women are seated and men are standing, apparently visiting.1
         1. Many vases depict men and youths visiting women in brothels: e.g., a kylix by Makron (Toledo 1972.55; Reeder 1994: 183-87); and a red-figure hydria by the Leningrad Painter (Chicago Art Institute 1911.456; Moon 1979: fig. 97).
         These references would appear in the Bibliography as:
           Reeder, E. 1994. Pandora. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
           Moon, W.G. 1979. Midwest Collections. Iowa City: Iowa University Press.

    Bibliographical information & discussion
    FORMAT: text.1
         1. Note and discussion.

    EXAMPLE: The clay of the structure proved to be Middle Bronze Age in date, although the structure itself should have been constructed much later, perhaps as much as 900 years later1.
         1. Aravantinos 1996: 135 gives an accurate account of the clay analysis, proving its iron content high enough to warrent a date no later than Middle Bronze Age (i.e., no later than 1600 BC). Since the structure's plan is that of a Geometric temple (no later than 725 BC), it should be assumed that the clay to construct it was kneaded and levigated for a considerably earlier building at the site that disintegrated and was reused for the later structure.
         This reference would appear in the Bibliography as:
           Aravantinos, V. 1996. "New Archaeological and Archival Discoveries at Mycenaean Thebes," Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 41: 135-36.


    Popular & Scholarly Magazine/Journal Titles
    for
    Classical & Near Eastern & Egyptian archaeology
    Culture
    Popular magazine
    Scholarly journal
    Greece & Rome
    Archaeology (Watson GN700.A725)
    Antiquity (Watson CC1.A7)
    American Journal of Archaeology (Watson CC1.A6)
    Hesperia (Watson DF10.H4)
    Journal of Roman Studies (Watson DG 11.J7)
    Journal of Hellenic Studies (Watson DF10.J8)
    Egypt
    KMT (KU does not have this; but Professor Rehak has curent issues)
    Journal of Egyptian Archaeology (Watson DT57 .E332)
    Near East
    Near Eastern Archaeology (formerly Biblical Archaeologist) (Watson BS620.A1 B5)
    Journal of Near Eastern Studies (Watson DS41.J6)
    field archaeology, all cultures
    Archaeology (Watson GN700.A725)
    Journal of Field Archaeology (Watson CC1.J68x)



    John Younger