Bronze Age to the Death of Alexander

last update: 7 January 2017



70,000Palaeolithicstone tools; Platyvolos skull
15,000Mesolithicboats; obsidian from Melos)
6,000Neolithicthe "agrarian revolution" (domestication of plants and animals, settled life in villages, handmade pottery; Franchthi Cave
Dimini [MN]
Sesklo [LN]
smelting of copper ("Chalko-lithic")
2800Early Bronze Age 2800-2600: Early Bronze Age I (EM I at Debla)
2600-2200: Early Bronze Age II (proto-urban [great house; centralized government])
EM II: Vasilike; EH II: Lerna, Corridor House "House of the Tiles", destroyed by fire
2200-1900: Early Bronze Age III: potter's wheel; Greeks?
1900Middle Bronze Age Middle Helladic (mainland Greece): small villages, intra-mural burials (Ayios Stephanos)
Middle Minoan (Crete)
1900-1800: MM IA: writing (Cretan Hieroglyphic)
1800-1700: MM IB-II: "Protopalaces"
1700-1600: MM III: Neopalatial Crete; Linear A
1600-1200Late Bronze Age1600-1500: LH I, "Shaft Grave Period"
1500-1475: LM IA, eruption of Santorini
1475-1450: LM IB, destruction of almost all Cretan sites
1450-1400: LM II: Greek take-over of Crete (Final Palatial)
1400-1375: LB IIIA: beginning of "Mycenaean Empire" (Mycenae, Tiryns, Thebes, Pylos)
1375-1325: LB IIIB: destruction of Knossos in Crete (Post Palatial)
1325-1225: LB IIIC: destruction of all other Mycenaean centers
1100Bronze Age endsall state-institutions collapse



~825Adaptation of the Phoenician alphabet, invention of vowels
813Carthage founded
790-760Sparta expands into Laconia
7761st Olympic Games (1st Olympiad)
760Pithecusae (island near Naples) founded
757Sparta keeps list of annual magistrates
756Sparta's "Great Rhetra"
colonies in the Propontis (Sea of Marmara) founded
~750"composition" of the Homeric poems (Iliad, Odyssey, Hymns)
750Megara becomes independent from Corinth
735Corinth founds Corcyra; Naxos, first colony in Sicily
734Corinth founds Syracuse (Sicily)
732-7161st Messenian War (Sparta vs. Messenia)
~710Pheidon of Argos; Lelantine War (Euboea: Eretria loses to Chalkis)
706Spartan "Parthenioi" found Taras (modern Taranto, Italy)


687-652Gyges, king of Lydia, invents coinage (in use in Greece by 650)
683Athens keeps list of the annual magistrate Archon Basileus
676Megara founds Chalcedon (on Anatolian side of the Bosphoros)
669Argos defeats Sparta at Hysiai; Sparta adopts the "Eunomia"
668Pheidon controls Olympia
659-657Megara founds Byzantion (on the European side of the Bosphoros)
653-625Cypselos, tyrant of Corinth
639Thera founds Cyrene (1st city in Libya)
632Cylon's conspiracy (Athens), trial and exile of the Alcmaeonidae (go to Delphi)
625-587Periander, tyrant of Corinth
621Draco, sole archon of Athens


600Potidaea (Chalkidike), Massalia (Marseilles), and Naukratis (delta of Egypt) founded
600-560Kleisthenes, tyrant of Sikyon
5961st Pyrthia games at Delphi
594Solon, sole archon at Athens ("Seisachtheia", adoptation of Euboic standard of coinage)
585Thales (of Miletos) predicts eclipse of the sun (28 May)
583/2fall of the Cypselids at Corinth; Damasias sole archon at Athens (until January 579)
579Jan-Oct: board of 10 archons (5 nobles, 3 farmers, 2 craftsmen) at Athens
Solon returns
570-565Athens vs. Megara
Peisistratos seizes the island of Salamis
566Panathenaia "reorganized"
560Chilon, ephor of Sparta, makes the ephorate the supreme executive power
Pesistratos becomes tyrant of Athens (mutilates himself, gets bodyguard, seizes the Acropolis)
556Peisistratos forced to retire (goes to Sigaeum in the Troad)
550Pesistratos returns to Athens (marries daughter of Miltiades, she claims unnatural consummation), and retires again (goes to "White Tower" in the Thracian Chersonnese (Gallipoli peninsula)
548Temple of Apollo at Delphi burns, rebuilt in marble by the Alcmaeonidae
546Peisistratos lands at Marathon, gets Phyé to dress up as Athena, becomes tyrant of Athens again
5351st naval battle: Greeks vs. Etruscans off Alalia (near Pisa, Italy)
534god Dionysos introduced to Athens (1st dithyrambs [choral hymns & reenactments of his myth {earliest drama}])
529Cyrus, king of Persia dies; Darius the Mede becomes king
527Peisistratos dies, Hippias (with Hipparchos) becomes tyrant of Athens
519Plataia besieged by Thebes, allies with Athens
514Hipparchos assassinated
Persia conquers Thrace to the Strymon river
513Alcmaeonidae invade Attica and are driven back
511Sparta lands at Phaleron to expell Hippias and are driven back
Miltiades returns from the Chersonnese
510Kleomenes of Sparta expells Hippias (he flees to Sigaeum)
509Isagoras, archon eponymous at Athens
508Cleisthenes elected to reform the government
tribes elect their own generals (board of 10 = strategeia)
506Athens sets up a clerouchy at Chalkis
501reform of the strategeia, elected now by the ekklesia
499Ionian revolt
498Athens sends 20 ships to Miletos
494Miletos destroyed
493Themistokles archon
trial of Miltiades
Phrynichos's play "Milesian Women"
Piraeus becomes Athens' main harbor
491Aegina "medizes" (goes over to the Persian side)
Leotychides & Leonidas, kings of Sparta, make an alliance with Athens and Corinth
Darius sails from Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey) across the Aegean, stopping at Delos
battle of Marathon (June?)
Darius sails back
4871st ostracism: Hippocleides, an Alcmaeonid
archonship selected by lot
485death of Darius the Great, accession of Xerxes (assassinated 464)
482Aristeides the Just ostracized
481"Themistocles Decree" to evacuate Athens
all exiles and those ostracised recalled
480Xerxes musters the army at Sigaeum, crosses the Hellespont, digs a canal through the Athos peninsula.
Greeks sail to Artemisium, the army under Leonidas march to Thermopylae; battles lost.
Athenians evacuate the city and move to Troizene; Persians capture the city and burn it.
Battle of Salamis (20 September).
Xerxes, defeated, sails across to Smyrna with his navy; his army stays.
479Battle of Plataea


479Congress and oath of Plataea: prosecution of the war against Persia under the "Delian Confederacy".
Athens rebuilts her walls.
Spartan admiral Pausanias heads the Delain Confederacy for a couple of months; then Athens takes over.
478organization of the Delian Confederacy by Aristeides the Just
470Naxos revolts, is defeated, and gets a clerouchy
Themistokles is ostracized and flees to Sigaeum
469Battle of the Eurymedon river (Cyprus)
465revolt of Thasos, crushed
Athens sends a colony to the Nine Ways (Amphipolis) on the Strymon river next to Mt Pangaion (full of silver).
464earthquake at Sparta, revolt of the Helots to Messene.
Kimon of Athens takes an army to Sparta to help the Spartans capture the Helots; the army eventually rebels, Kimon is recalled and ostracised.
Xerxes assassinated, succeeded by Artaxerxes: revolt in Egypt; Athens sends ships to help
461Sparta takes Messene; Athens settles the Messenian survivors at Naupaktos
Athens allies with Megara and helps build her her Long Walls to Nisaea and Minoa
459Artaxerxes bribes Sparta to invade Athens
458Athens completes her own Long Walls to Piraeus
457Tomides sails around the Peloponnese from Athens to Naupaktos. Archoship at Athens is opened up to the zeugitai class
454Athens's ships in Egypt are defeated (battle of the White Tower), and transfers the treasury of the Delian League to Athens for safety. Miletos revolts.
452Miletos is recovered
451Kimon returns from ostracism. Five year truce with Persia. Sparta allies with Argos
450Kimon campaigns in Cyprus & dies (battle of Salamis, Cyprus).
Athens establishes pay for juryduty but restricts citizenship to those born of parents who are both Athenians.
Tribute from the Delian federal allies converted solely to cash (no ships).
Carthaginians driven out of west Sicily
449Perikles elected polemarch (every year [except 443] until his death in 429).
Peace of Kallias with Persia (war over):
Congress decree (no tribute for one year, meeting of all allied states at Corinth to decide what to do with the Delian League),
Papyrus decree (tribtue to be reimposed in 448/7),
Coinage decree (all allied states must use Athenian money),
Klearchos decree (??).
Samos revolts & forms an oligarchy.
1st Sacred War at Delphi.
447Parthenon begun (442 dedicated, 438 all sculpture in place)
446Battle of Coronea (Boeotians and allies defeat and rout the Athenians).
Megara & Euboea revolt (Euboea is recaptured).
Sparta attacks Attica.
30-Years Peace.
Psammetichus of Egypt sends grain, revision of Athenian citizenship to 21,000 citizens.
Athens allies with Rhegium & Leontinoi in Sicily
443Perikles NOT elected polemarch
disenfranchised Athenians send as colonists to Thurii in south Italy (Herodotus amongst them).
Thucydides son of Melesios (not the historian Thucydides son of Oloros) is ostracized.
Athenian empire reorganized into 5 districts.
442Perikles re-elected polemarch (and every year until his death in 429)
440Samos & Byzantion revolt
438Amphipolis founded.
1st Megarian decree (no trading with Megara)
433contrary to the 30 Years Peace, Athens admits Corcyra into the alliance and demands Potidaea, not an ally, to dismantle her walls.
2nd Megarian decree (Megara is not allowed to trade in any market of the Athenian allies)
431Corinth gets Sparta to declare war on Athens: Peloponnesian war begins
429Plague in Athens: Perikles dies; Cleon becomes the most influential member of the ekklesia
428property tax in Athens
425Eurymedon & Sophokles (the admiral) set sail for Sicily with Demosthenes (the admiral), who stops off at Pylos, fortifies it, and manages to isolate several hundred Spartiates on the island of Sphacteria; Sparta sues for a truce; Cleon refuses, and arrives at Pylos. The island of Sphacteria is burnt, the Spartiates are exposed and 240 are captured.
422Brasidas, the leading Spartan general, and Cleon die at the battle of Amphipolis
421Nikias, a religious arch-conservative, is polemarch: Peace of Nikias (Athens & Sparta ally)
418Battle of Mantineia (Sparta & Athens vs. Argos)
417Nikias & Alcibiades engineer the ostracism of Hyperbolos (last man to be ostracised)
416Athens destroys Melos
415Mutilation of the Herms; Sicilian expedition; recall of Alcibiades and his flight to Sparta (eventually he makes his way to Samos)
413Athenians defeated at Syracuse. Sparta invades Attica and fortifies Deceleia
412"democratic" revolution at Samos; general revolt of the Athenian allies
411"the 400" in power in Athens (Spring)
"the 5000" (September)
410democracy restored in Athens
409Athens loses Pylos & Nisaia (Megara). In Sicily, Carthaginians destroy Selinus & Himera
408Athens recovers Byzantion. Alcibiades returns to Athens
406battle of Arginusae, trial of the Athenian admirals. Carthaginians destroy Acragas
405Lysander is navarch; battle of Aegispotomoi (Lysander vs. Conon)
404Athens surrenders; "30 tyrants"; Thrasyboulos seizes Phyle
403Thrasyboulos seizes Piraeus; democracy restored
401Sparta's hegemony in the Aegean. Cyrus's revolt (2nd Ionian revolt) in Anatolia, "Anabasis" of Xenophon.


399Agis (king of Sparta) invades Elis, Naupaktos (Messenians evicted), & Thessaly
war declared against Persia. Trial and execution of Socrates
398Agesilaus (king of Sparta) engineers truce between Sparta & Persia
397Sparta-Persia truce collapses
Conon appointed commander of Persian fleet in Cyprus
conspiracy of Cinaden, leader of the Inferiors
396Agesilaus assumes command of the Spartan army
395Conon engineers revolt of Rhodes
Tissaphernes bribes Argos, Corinth, & Thebes to revolt from Sparta
394Persia defeats Sparta at battle of Knidos; Greek cities revolt
Athens & Thebes ally.
Pausanias (king of Sparta) asks for a truce, and is exiled from Sparta to Tegea.
Athens & Thebes & other allies win a victory over Sparta at Corinth and against Agesilaus at Chaironeia.
Corinth builds Long Walls to its harbor at Lechaion
393Athens rebuilds her Long Walls
citizens are paid for attending the Ekklesia
392Corinth & Argos unite
391Agesilaus caputres Corinth's harbor.
Conon dies in Cyprus
390Agesilaus presides over the Isthmian games.
Iphicrates of Corinth invents a lighter hoplite armor and, with it, destroys an entire Spartan garrison (mora, 600 Spartiates). Agesilaus retreats to Sparta in disgrace.
Athens establishes a war tax.
Evagoras of Salamis (Cyprus) revolts from Persia
389Athens regains the northern territories and levies a 5% tax on commerce
388Plato founds the Academy in Athens
387/6Antalcidas blockades the Hellespont and declares peace
386/5Sparta breaks up Mantineia.
Cities in the Chalcidike form a federation
384Lysias, orator at Athens, delivers his speech at Olympia urging all to stop fighting and unite against Persia
382Sparta captures Thebes and installs a pro-Spartan government; Plataea is captured
381Isocrates's "Panegyric"
379Sparta forces the Chalcidian League to dissolve.
Pelopidas & Epaminondas recapture Thebes and install a democracy.
Sphodrias (Sparta) tries to capture Piraeus.
378/7Athens (under Callistrates) & Thebes form the Second Athenian Confederacy
Thebes reorganizes the Sacred Band (300-500 men as pairs of lovers)
377Thebes recaptures Boeotia and repells Spartan attacks
376Athens decimates the Spartan fleet at Naxos
374/3Sparta breaks the truce by trying to capture Corcyra and failing
372Sparta captures the Syracusan relief fleet to Corcyra.
Thebes retakes Plataea.
371"King's Peace" (all but Thebes signs): Athens is to dominate by sea, Sparta on land.
Battle of Leuktra (Thebans under Epameinondas vs. Sparta under Kleombrotas)
370Jason of Pherae assassinated.
Mantineia reassembles the Arcadian League (Megalopolis founded to become the federal capitol).
Thebes invades Sparta, and, with the Helots, reestablishes Messenia; the Helots build their capitol city Messene.
Mantineia helps Tegea, corinth, Megara, Sikyon, Phlius & Phigalieia to throw out their pro-Spartan oligarchs.
368Congress at Delphi; "tearless" battle between Sparta & Arcadia
367Epaminondas invades Thessaly
366Arcadia allies with Athens
364Thebes destroys Orchomenos, invades the Propontis; Byzantion, Rhodes, Chios, & Keos all revolt from Athens.
Epaminondas defeats Thessaly at Cynoskephaloi.
Olympia despoiled
362Epaminondas invades Laconia; Thebes defeats Sparta at Mantineia, but Epaminondas dies there -- Thebes retires
359Athens recovers the Thracian Chersonnese (Gallipoli peninsula) & Euboea.
Macedonia unifies
358Philip becomes king of Macedon (assassinated 336)
357Philip allies with Athens and takes Amphipolis. Athens declares war on Philip.
2nd Sacred War (the "Social" war).
In Athens Euboulos controls the Theoric Fund.
Mausolaus of Caria sponsors the 3rd Ionian revolt (against Athens), and the 2nd Athenian Confederacy breaks up
356birth of Alexander II (the Great)
355end of the Social War
354Mausolaus of Caria dies (the Mausoleum at Halikarnessos is built, finished 350)
352Philip enters Greece as the ally of Thebes and Thessaly.
War between Sparta & Messenia.
Philip gains Thrace.
351Demosthenes, 1st "Philippic"
350Aristotle founds the Lyceum in Athens
349Philip reduces the Chalcidian League, causes Euboea to revolt from Athens
348Plato dies
347Aeschines tries to round of national assistance: 1st embassy to Pella
346Peace of Philocrates. Philip becomes archon (tagus) of Thessaly.
Athens revises its citizenship
343Philocrates flees, Aeschines acquitted of treason
341Euboea forms a federation
340Philip besieges Byzantion
3393rd Sacred War (against Amphissa); Philip, as member of the Amphictyony, descends to solve it.
Lykourgos begins a new building program in Athens (Theatre of Dionysos is monumentalized, built of stone)
338Athens allies with Thebes
Philip captures Amphissa and Naupaktos.
Battle of Chaironeia, annihilation of Thebes' Sacred Band
337Congress (synhedrion) of Corinth: Philip unites Greece under his command, and declares Persia to be their objective: "on to Persia!"
336assassination of Philip; Alexander II becomes king of Macedon
335Greece revolts; Alexander puts them down, destroys Thebes
334Alexander sets out: crosses the Hellespont; battle of the Granikos; Ionia surrenders
333Alexander pushes through Anatolia: battle of Alexandretta
332siege of Tyre; Phoenicia & Egypt surrender
331Alexander at the oracle of Zeus Ammon at Siwa (Libya); battle of Gaugamela; capture of the Persian capitol at Susa
330Alexander occupies Persepolis; battle of Ecbatana: "on to Asia!"; death of Darius Oxus
329capture of Afghanistan
328capture of Samarkand
327Alexander marries Roxane
326Alexander at the Indus; soldiers mutiny
325Alexander retreats through southern Iran; naval expedition of Nearchos around Arabia
324Alexander conducts mass weddings; veterans leave for Macedonia
Alexander sends deification decree to Greece
323completion of Nearchos's circumnavigation of Arabia
Hephaistion dies; Alexander dies (13 June)

John Younger