Patent #9365939: Anderson, M.A., Leonard, K.C., Nanoporous Materials for Reducing the Overpotential of Creating Hydrogen by Water Electrolysis (Issued 2016)

Patent #8116067: Anderson, M.A., Leonard, K.C., Nanoporous Insulating Oxide Electrolyte Membrane Ultracapacitor, Button Cell, Stacked Cell and Coiled Cell and Methods of Manufacture and Use Thereof (Issued 2012)

Patent #8216445: Anderson, M.A., Leonard, K.C., Nanoporous Insulating Oxide Deionization Device Having Electrolyte Membrane, and Method of Manufacture and Use Thereof (Issued 2012)

12.  Leonard, K.C. and Bard, A.J. "The Study of Multireactional Electrochemical Interfaces via a Tip Generation/Substrate Collection Mode of Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy: The Hydrogen Evolution Reaction for Mn in Acidic Solution.” Journal of the American Chemical Society Vol. 135, Issue 42, pp. 15890 - 15896 (2013)
11.  Leonard, K.C. and Bard, A.J. "Pattern Recognition Correlating Materials Properties of the Elements to Their Kinetics for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.” Journal of the American Chemical Society Vol. 135, Issue 42, pp. 15885 - 15889 (2013)
10.  Leonard, K.C.; Nam, K.M.; Lee, H.C.; Soon, H.K.; Park, H.S. and Bard, A.J. “ZnWO4/WO3Composite for Improving Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C Vol. 117, pp. 15901 - 15910 (2013)
9.  Nam, K.M.; Park, H.S.; Lee, H.C.; Meekins, B.H.; Leonard, K.C. and Bard, A.J. “Compositional Screening of the Pb-Bi-Mo-O System. Spontaneous Formation of a Composite of p-PbMoO4 and n-Bi2O3 with Improved Photoelectrochemical Efficiency and Stability.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters Vol. 4, pp. 2707 - 2710 (2013)
8.  Park, H.S.; Leonard, K.C.and Bard, A.J. “Surface Interrogation Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SI-SECM) of Photoelectrochemistry at a W/Mo-BiVO4Semiconductor Electrode – Quantification of Hydroxyl Radicals During Water Oxidation” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C Vol. 117, Issue 23, pp. 12093 - 12102 (2013)
7.  Park, H.S.; Lee, H.C.; Leonard, K.C.; Liu, G. and Bard, A.J. “Unbiased Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting in Z-Scheme Device Using W/Mo-doped BiVO4 and ZnxCd1-xSe.” ChemPhysChem Vol 14, Issue 10, pp. 2277 - 2287 (2013)
6.  Najafpour, M.M; Leonard, K.C.; Fan, F.F.; Tabrizi, M.A.; Bard, A.J., King’ondu, C.K; Suib, S.L.; Haghighi, B.; Allakhverdiev, S.A. “Nano-size Layered Manganese–Calcium Oxide as an Efficient and Biomimetic Catalyst for Water Oxidation Under Acidic Conditions: Comparable to Platinum.”Dalton Transactions Vol. 42, Issue 14, pp. 5085-5091 (2013)
5.  Leonard, K.C.; Tejedor-Anderson, M.I. and Anderson, M.A. “Nanoporous Oxide Coatings on Stainless Steel to Enable Water Splitting and Reduce the Hydrogen Evolution Overpotential.”International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Vol. 37, Issue 24, pp.18654-18660 (2012)
3.  Leonard, K.C.; Suyama, W.E. and Anderson, M.A. “Evaluating the Electrochemical Capacitance of Surface-Charged Nanoparticle Oxide Coatings.” Langmuir Vol. 28, Issue 15, pp. 6476-6476 (2012)
2.  Leonard, K.C.; Suyama, W.E. and Anderson, M.A. “Improvement of Electrochemical Capacitor Electrodes using SiO2 Nanoparticles.” Electrochimica Acta Vol. 56, Issue 27, pp. 10137-10144 (2011)
1.  Leonard, K.C.; Genthe, J.R.; Sanfilippo, J.L.; Zeltner, W.A. and Anderson, M.A. “Synthesis and Characterization of Asymmetric Electrochemical Capacitive Deionization Materials Using Nanoporous Silicon Dioxide and Magnesium Doped Aluminum Oxide.” Electrochimica Acta Vol. 54, Issue 22, pp. 5286-5291 (2009)
4.  Chang, J.; Leonard, K.C.; Cho, S.K. and Bard, A.J. “Examining Ultramicroelectrodes for Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy by White Light Vertical Scanning Interferometry and Filling Recessed Tips by Electrodeposition of Gold.”Analytical Chemistry Vol. 84, Issue 11, pp. 5159-5163 (2012)


1. Bard A.J.; Lee H.C.; Leonard, K.C.; Park, H.S. and Wang. S.J. “Rapid Screening of Photocatalysts for Studies of Compositional Effects on Performance.” in Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Materials, Processes and Architectures, Lewerenz, H.J. and Peter, L.M., Eds. Royal Society of Chemistry: London (2013)

Book Chapters

13.  Jaison, D.; Barforoush, J.M.; Qiao, Q.; Zhu, Y.; Ren, S. and Leonard, K.C. "Low-Dimensional Hyperthin FeS2 Nanostructures for Efficient and Stable Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalysis.” ACS Catalysis Vol. 5, pp. 6653 - 6657 (2015)
14.  Barforoush, J.M.; McDonald, T.D.; Desai, T.; Widrig, D.; Bayer, C.; Brown, M. K.; Cummings, L.C. and Leonard, K.C. “Intelligent Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Tip and Substrate Control Utilizing Fuzzy Logic.” Electrochimica Acta Vol. 190, pp.713-719 (2016)
15.  McDonald, T.D.; Bayer, C.; DeLee, A.M.; Atchison, E.; Widrig, D.; Hutchens, B. and Leonard, K.C. “Rapid Characterization of Multi-Metallic Electrocatalysts for the Water Splitting Reactions Utilizing Printed Microelectrodes on a Chip.” Journal of The Electrochemical Society Vol. 163, pp.H359-H366 (2016)
16.  Kim, J.; Renault, C.; Nioradze, N. Arroyo-Curras, N.; Leonard, K.C. and Bard, A.J. “Electrocatalytic Activity of Individual Pt Nanoparticles Studied by Nanoscale Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy.”

Journal of The American Chemical Society Vol. 138, Issue 27, pp. 8560-8568 (2016)

17.  Kim, J.; Renault, C.; Nioradze, N. Arroyo-Curras, N.; Leonard, K.C. and Bard, A.J. “Nanometer Scale Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Instrumentation.” Analytical Chemistry Vol. 88, Issue 20, pp.10284–10289 (2016)
18.  Barforoush, J.M.; Jantz. D.T.; Seuferling, T.E.; Song, K.R.; Cummings, L.C. and Leonard, K.C. “Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Nanoamorphous (Ni0.8,Fe0.2) oxide oxygen-evolving electrocatalyst containing only ‘fast’ sites.” Journal of Materials Chemistry A Vol. 5, Issue 23, pp. 1661-11670 (2017).